Nietzsche K (CPS RR)


1NC


The affirmative subscribes to the idea of the perfectible cosmos, which is no more than an illusion---it is impossible to end suffering, and even if it wasn’t we shouldn’t try to. Instead, we should recognize the inevitability of suffering to prevent it from dominating us
Kain 7Phillip J. Professor of Philosophy @ Santa Clara University "Nietzsche and the Horror of Existence" The Journal of Nietzsche Studies Issue 33 Spring 2007 We do not endorse the gendered language
One might find all this unacceptable. After all, isn’t it just …. cannot be changed—it can only be concealed.


Disorder and insecurity are inevitable because we live in a dangerous world. Efforts to control this fear have resulted in the deaths of millions and the creation of WMDs---creates a self-fulfilling prophecy that turns the aff
Der Derian 98James, Political Science Professor, University of Massachusetts, On Security, ed: Lipschitz, The Value of Security: Hobbes, Marx, Nietzsche, and Baudrillard, Decentering Security
No other concept in international relations packs the metaphysical ….
impossible guarantees. It is a story of differences taking on the otherness of death, and identities calcifying into a fearful sameness.


And, there is no escape from the horror of existence. Therefore, we ask you to reject the affirmative’s idea of the “perfectible cosmos” to embrace the inevitability of what Nietzsche calls the “horrific cosmos.” Only then can we transform suffering into a productive force.
Kain 7Phillip J. Professor of Philosophy @ Santa Clara University "Nietzsche and the Horror of Existence" The Journal of Nietzsche Studies Issue 33 Spring 2007 We do not endorse the gendered language
At the center of Nietzsche’s vision lies his concept of the “terror and …. of man so far . . .” (BGE 225, 44; WP 957; GM II:7).

Jung K (CPS RR)

1NC



The aff’s attempt at enemy creation is an attempt to meld over what Jung calls the collective Shadow---this causes serial policy failure and turns the case
Hennelly 88Human Relations Institute, Santa Barbara “The Psychological Roots of Political and Ideological Violence: A Jungian Perspective” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 1988 13: 219 Sage
Jung found that it was through psychological projection of your misfortune is outside, and not in your own attitude.”33

The end result is extinction---it’s try or die---only voting neg to use Jungian psychoanalysis can solve the root cause
Hennelly 88Human Relations Institute, Santa Barbara “The Psychological Roots of Political and Ideological Violence: A Jungian Perspective” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 1988 13: 219 Sage
One of the most threateningand seemingly intractable….political, social and economic events, but in the inner world of image and symbol as well.

Intellectualization K (Pace RR)


1NC



The intellectualization of the 1AC is no more than a projection of responsibility---the idea that they’ve come to a debate tournament and demanded political action is laughable and demonstrative of their delusions

Dodds 12 Joseph, MPhil, Psychoanalytic Studies, Sheffield University, UK, MA, Psychoanalytic Studies, Sheffield University, UK BSc, Psychology and Neuroscience, Manchester University, UK, Chartered Psychologist (CPsychol) of the British Psychological Society (BPS), and a member of several other professional organizations such as the International Neuropsychoanalysis Society, Psychoanalysis and Ecology at the Edge of Chaos p 48

The split can also take … manageable and entertaining pseudo-environmentalism.



Every Symbolic order necessitates some forms of safe transgression, where the 1AC is no more than the fantasy that we’ve created to convince ourselves that we’re doing something good---a symbiotic relationship is created, with the 1AC’s criticism and the ideological order mutually reinforcing each other

Stavrakakis 12 Yannis Stavrakakis, Associate Professor at the School of Political Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "SYMPOSIUM: FANTASY AND MARKETS: Beyond the Spirits of Capitalism? Prohibition, Enjoyment, and Social Change" Cardozo Law Review August, 2012 Cardozo Law Review 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 2289

If, today, the battle between … -circuit present in such cases.



Ideological transgression is a continuation of the existing order—the power of the protest structurally depends upon the continued authority of the system. The affirmative functions as a carnivalesque reversal of authority—we make a gesture of non-compliance that posits us as the “real” masters of fate

Zizek 95 Slavoj, International Director of the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities, president of the Society for Theoretical Psychoanalysis, LAW AND THE POSTMODERN MIND: SUPEREGO BY DEFAULT, Cardozo Law Review, 1995, 16 Cardozo L. Rev. 925

In the traditional patriarchal society, … precisely with the national thing?



The alternative is to psychoanalyze the 1AC---the fantasy will reveal itself as long as we continue asking questions to expose their concealment of the lack---in other words, it’s your job to confuse and frustrate them via a refusal to partake in their politics---this also crushes the permutation

Dean 6Jodi, Prof of Political Science at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 2006, Zizek’s Politics. Xviii-xx

Žižek emphasizes that Lacan conceptualized … our experiences as ideological subjects.






2NC McGowan


The aff’s armchair activism is bad – it makes us complacent with the squo and makes us desire the problems of the 1ac to continue on
McGowan 4 PhD from Ohio State English Department (Todd, 2004, “Introduction: Psychoanalysis after Marx”, End of Dissatisfaction? Jacques Lacan and the Emerging Society of Enjoyment”, p. 192-4) MH
The problem with the school uniform movement, as well as all of the other calls for a return to prohibition, is that, as the previous chapters have sought to demonstrate, widespread disobedience is not the problem. The problem with the society of commanded enjoyment—what constitutes its danger for us—is not …. is, at the same time, the act of transcendence. To recognize one’s failure to enjoy is already to begin to enjoy.

2NC Alternative


The alt is the ONLY way to overcome the phantasy---our framework uses the ballot to shock the aff into recognition---solves splitting
Fotaki 9 Marianna Fotaki is Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor) of health policy and organization studies in Manchester Business School "Maintaining the illusion of a free health care in post-socialism: A Lacanian analysis of transition from planned to market economy" Journal of Organizational Change Management22. 2 (2009): 141-158
The framework I have proposed for this analysis has the lack of the divided …. the imaginary foundations of the ideology that intertwines with the symbolic.

2NC Framework


Unraveling the fantasy of the 1AC must be a prior question to the plan
Žižek 2k Senior Researcher @ University of Ljubljana, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality 124-127
Now I can also answer the obvious counter-argument to this …. are not actually `doing the impossible', traversing the fantasy towards the Real.


2NC Permutation


The perm’s supplementing fails
Stavrakakis 12 Yannis Stavrakakis, Associate Professor at the School of Political Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, "SYMPOSIUM: FANTASY AND MARKETS: Beyond the Spirits of Capitalism? Prohibition, Enjoyment, and Social Change" Cardozo Law Review August, 2012 Cardozo Law Review 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 2289
However, the current crisis seems to call for a renewed …. of jouissance and eventually [*2294] dealing directly with the type of social bond instituted by the "discourse of capitalism." n16












Gender K (Emory)


1NC (vs GBN space elevators)



The affirmative’s attempt at space exploration and development only reinforces patriarchy---their technostrategic discourse creates a gendered binary making conflict inevitable

Griffin 9 Department of Politics, University of Bristol, Panel on “Reading Outer Space” 3/25/2006, Penny Griffin, “The Spaces Between Us: The Gendered Politics of Outer Space,” International Studies Association Conference in San Diego, www.bisa-ipeg.org/papers/19PennyGriffin.pdf

The US is, of course, heavily … than on Earth? [emphasis added]’ (2004: 10).



The aff’s epistemological understanding of security is based on gendered threat construction—guarantees extinction

Tickner 1 Ann professor at the School of International Relations USC. B.A. in History, U London. M.A. in IR, Yale. PhD in pol sci, Brandeis U Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era

New issues and new definitions … beginning to undertake such reanalyses.



That causes extinction---edited for language

Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT

Technology can be used to … these experts. (Kelly 1990: 112-114; Eisler 1990: 3233; Schumacher 1993: 20, 126, 128, 130).



The alternative is to reject the affirmative’s gendered enframing of the world—simply the process of critique removes the ideological blinders inherent in policy-making. The permutation is doomed to failure b/c the starting point of the 1AC was profoundly militarized

Shepherd 8Laura J. Shepherd, Department of Political Science and International Studies, University of Birmingham, “Gender, Violence and Global Politics: Contemporary Debates in Feminist Security Studies,” EBSCO

As discussed above, ideas about … world (Zalewski 1996, p. 352, emphasis in original).



2NC Overview




This means everything they’ve said is wrong---epistemological issues come 1st---that’s Tickner and here’s

Tickner 1Ann professor at the School of International Relations USC. B.A. in History, U London. M.A. in IR, Yale. PhD in pol sci, Brandeis U Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era

Does the fact that states’ national-security policies …. “scientific” is questionable. In other words, theories cannot be separated from political practice.



2NC Framework




First, beginning discussions at the intellectual level is more productive---it causes better social changes, takes the ideological blinders off of policy-makers, and reclaims the political---this is empirically proven by the end of the Cold War, peace movements in the 80s and the Intifada in the Middle East that can spillover globally---this is also a reason why they don’t get their aff

Bilgin 5 Assistant Prof of International Relations at Bilkent University, REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE, p54-

The point is that a broader security agenda requires students of security to ….about security. Otherwise, they run the risk of constituting ‘threats to the future’ (Kubálková 1998: 193–201).





The K comes first in the context of space---our investigation is key to education and policy formulation

Griffin 9 Penny, Senior Lecturer - Convenor, MA International Relations, ‘The Spaces Between Us: The Gendered Politics of Outer Space’, in Bormann, N. and Sheehan, M. (eds), Securing Outer Space. London and New York: Routledge, pp.59-75.

Outer space is a conceptual, political and material space, a place for …. norms, 'may or may not be explicit' (Butler 2004: 41).





Their appeal to fiat is a link—it results in fetishization of the state that precludes interpersonal politics—this results in endless structural violence that outweighs theaff

Shepherd 8Laura J., Lecturer in IR and International Law @ U Birmingham, Gender, Violence and Security: Discourse as Practice, p 166-168

Fetishizing the state as a form of political authorityin this way …. of (international) security and (gender) violenceunder discussion here by institutionalizing efficiency, equality and empowerment.





2NC AT Perm




The perm is the worst form of masculine violence—it simply “adds feminine criticism” as an afterthought—this naturalized the gendered parts of the plan as acceptable—that’s Shepherd—and,

Peterson 4 [V. SPIKE PETERSON is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science with courtesy appointments in Women’s Studies, Comparative Cultural and Literary Studies, and International Studies at the University of Arizona, “Feminist Theories Within, Invisible To, and Beyond IR,” Brown Journal of World Affairs WINTER / SPRING 2004 • VOLUME X, ISSUE 2]



Attempts to rectify the systematic exclusion of women and the …. to answer these questions, and in the process shed additional light on the questions posed by the editors.



2NC AT Essentialism




t/ essentialism good

Anderson 9 [Prof of women’s studies & philosoph @ Michigan, “Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science”]



Criticisms of Feminist Postmodernism. Both key features of feminist … of social differentiation and embodiment.





2NC AT Experts




Expertism and prediction are doomed---reject their scenario-planning

Jonah Goldberg 11 is a visiting fellow at AEI "Seduced by the Cult of Experts" Aug 30 www.aei.org/article/104068

Seduced by the Cult of Experts It isn't surprising thatObama …. so on--are any better than journalists or attentive readers of the New York Times in 'reading' emerging situations."





2NC AT Schmitt




The Kritik turns this impact—their evidence says lack of us/them dichotomy causes constant paranoia—the security state actively produces this paranoia to subjugate the population—this results in worse violence

Neocleous, Prof of Gov, 8[Mark Neocleous, Prof. of Government @ Brunel, Critique of Security, p117-]



Eliding the distinction between military practice and the everyday …. to be found: one must never allow the system to‘run out of demons’.49



2NC AT Realism




Realism wrong and adhering to it guarantees mass wars

Bilgin 5 Assistant Prof of International Relations at Bilkent University, REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE, p

Presenting pictures of what a ‘desired’ future might look like, and … do not leave the world untouched.






Psychoanalysis K


1NC


The aff’s call for transportation investment is not objective or neutral and is no more than a fantasy of control over the world in an attempt to provide ontological security---but the Symbolic creation and Imaginary representation of planning policies always fail because of the Lack---it is impossible to recapture the security of our lost primordial maternal fullness
Gunder & Hillier 9Michael Gunder, Associate Professor, Associate Head Research & Postgraduate – Planning at University of Auckland (New Zealand), and Jean Hillier, professor of Town and Country Planning at Newcastle University and Managing Editor of the international journal 'Planning Theory', Planning in Ten Words or Less: A Lacanian Entanglement with Spatial Planning, p. 23-30

To some degree most, or perhaps all, peopledesire to be safe, secure and to have control…. between I995 and 2005 and subsequently played off against one another, in Sydney's case, primarily fot the attainment of success in the global economy (Gunder and Searle 2007; McGuirk 200-4, 2005, 2007).


And, the notion of security is a psychological construct---the aff’s scenarios for war and conflict are products of paranoia that project our violent impulses onto the other and result in their extermination
Mack 91 John E. Mack is a Doctor of Psychiatry and a professor at Harvard University, “The Enemy System” http://www.johnemackinstitute.org/eJournal/article.asp?id=23 *Gender modified
The threat of nuclear annihilation … , contribute powerfully to the process.

Our alternative is to adopt the role of the analyst---transportation planning isn’t objective or neutral---it is motivated by underlying structures of ideology and fantasy that can only be unraveled by the alternative
Gunder 6Michael Gunder, a Senior planning lecturer in the School of Architecture and Planning at the University of Auckland, and is a past president of the New Zealand Planning Institute. He has a BA, MA and PhD in Planning. “Lacan, Planning and Urban Policy Formation.,” 22 Aug 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0811114042000335287
The analyst’s discourse for Lacan hegemonic American motorway cure (ARC, 2003).

1NC Security


Security is a psychological construct—the aff’s scenarios for conflict are products of paranoia that project our violent impulses onto the other
Mack 91 – Doctor of Psychiatry and a professor at Harvard University (John, “The Enemy System” http://www.johnemackinstitute.org/eJournal/article.asp?id=23 *Gender modified)
The threat of nuclear annihilation … , contribute powerfully to the process.

Their paranoid projections guarantee extinction—it’s try or die
Hollander 3 professor of Latin American history and women's studies at California State University "A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Politics of Terror:In the Aftermath of 9/11" www.estadosgerais.org/mundial_rj/download/FLeitor_NHollander_ingl.pdf
In this sense, then, 9-11 hasprojective mechanisms and stimulates paranoia.

Vote negative to interrogate cycles of enemy creation—this can create a fissure in dominant narratives that make war inevitable
Byles 3—English, U Cyprus (Joanna, Psychoanalysis and War: The Superego and Projective Identification, http://www.clas.ufl.edu/ipsa/journal/articles/art_byles01.shtml
It is here of course … , most importantly, a way of thinking.







Zizek---2NC



The leveraging of future catastrophes against present change allows massive ongoing violence in the present to stop a fantasy of violence in the future—staving off the apocalypse serves to create a coherent narrative that can explain the world while allowing its violence to continue unimpeded

Žižek 4Senior Researcher at the Institute For Social Studies At Ljubljana, Winter 2004 Slavoj, “The Ongoing ‘Soft Revolution,’ Critical Inquiry 30.2, p. lion.chadwyck.com

How to Live with Catastrophes

Nowhere is today's resistance to … , in a way, already took place.


Shapiro---2NC



The affirmative’s conception of war as a policy of identification of enemies is flawed. They’re truly just attempting to determine their collective identity in contrast to a demonized Other. This perception is a flawed idea that simply leads to incomplete ideas of the self, which in turn spawns more ongoing conflict

Shapiro 97Michael Shapiro, 1997, Professor of International Relations, University of Hawaii, Violent Cartographies: Mapping Cultures of War

Yet in his trinity passage, … order that defy this coherence.


Accidents---2NC



Fear of accidents is based on the demarcation of an unruly outside to be disciplined and control---causes paranoia and war

Tan See Seng 2 Head of Research for Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore. PhD, What Fear Hath Wrought: Missile Hysteria and The Writing of “America”, July 2002, http://www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/WorkingPapers/WP28.PDF

What the notion of the “… repetitive writing of political identity.


China---2NC



The affirmative’s claims to how China will act and react to certain policies like the plan depends on a rationalization of China—this flawed positivist epistemology seeks to render all of the international arena knowable and predictable—the result is the inevitable emergence of a ‘China threat’ based on orientalization

Chengxin Pan 4 prof school of international and political studies, Deakin U. PhD in pol sci and IR, “The "China threat" in American self-imagination: the discursive construction of other as power politics,” 1 June 2004, http://www.articlearchives.com/asia/northern-asia-china/796470-1.html

Having examined how the "China … States, with the "severe disproportion


China---2NC


The affirmative’s claims to how China will act and react to certain policies like the plan depends on a rationalization of China—this flawed positivist epistemology seeks to render all of the international arena knowable and predictable—the result is the inevitable emergence of a ‘China threat’ based on orientalization
Chengxin Pan 4 prof school of international and political studies, Deakin U. PhD in pol sci and IR, “The "China threat" in American self-imagination: the discursive construction of other as power politics,” 1 June 2004, http://www.articlearchives.com/asia/northern-asia-china/796470-1.html
Having examined how the "China threat" literature is enabled by and serves the …and exists mainly in and for the U.S. self. Little wonder that formany U.S. China specialists, China becomes merely a "nationalsecurity concern" for the United States, with the "severe disproportion

If 1 person should be the basis for understanding a country’s motivations then they lose
Coonan 11Clifford—writer for the Irish Times, 3/5/2011, “China says military build-up is no threat”, http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/world/2011/0305/1224291372866.html, accessed March 28, 2011,
CHINA IS planning to boost its defence spending by 12.7 per cent this…. between national defence and economic development,” he told a news conference. China tends to point to Washington’s massive annual military spend.

Disease---2NC




Disease = Link

Pereira 8—PhD candidate in International Politics and Conflict Resolution at the Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra, Portugal. (Ricardo, Processes of Securitization of Infectious Diseases and Western Hegemonic Power: A Historical-Political Analysis, www.ghgj.org/Pereira_%20processes%20of%20securitization.doc)



Historically, public health intervention has. Table 1 summarizes the main characteristics.


Heg---2NC



Hegemony = self-fulfilling prophecy based on epistemologically tenuous assumptions and à war, genocide, collective suicide and extinction

Hoggett 4 prof of politics and co-dir. of Center for Psycho-Social Studies, U West England. Degree in social psychology, U Sussex—AND—Dr. Simon Clarke—prof of psycho-social studies and co-dir. of the center The Empire of Fear: The American Political Psyche and the Culture of Paranoia, http://www.btinternet.com/~psycho_social/Vol5/JPSS5-PHSC1.htm

The image of Prometheus has often been used as a metaphor to describe the conjoining of capitalist and technological development,….nowstandsas themajorthreat to global society.



Your statistical data for heg/deterrence fails---too many complexities and varying interpretations---this evidence is so amazing that you should star it

Bernstein 2k - et al., Steven Richard Ned Lebow, Janice Gross Stein and Steven Weber, University of Toronto, The Ohio State University, University of Toronto and University of California at Berkeley. European Journal of International Relations 2000; 6; 43.

A deep irony is embedded … in past or future time.5

Hollander---2NC


Their projection of violence onto external scenarios for conflict absolve our responsibility in creating those threats---ensures their inevitability and causes extinction---try or die
Hollander 3 Nancy Hollander is a professor of Latin American history and women's studies at California State University "A Psychoanalytic Perspective on the Politics of Terror:In the Aftermath of 9/11" www.estadosgerais.org/mundial_rj/download/FLeitor_NHollander_ingl.pdf
In this sense, then, 9-11 has symbolically constituted a …, Segal believes that such denial only increases reliance on projective mechanisms and stimulates paranoia.

Israel Strikes---2NC


If we win our epistemology arguments, you have an obligation to refuse blackmail of Israeli strikes---this debate matters---they make a strike self-fulfilling prophecy
Chernus 12—prof of religious studies at UC Boulder (Ira, New York Times Hypes Israeli Attack On Iran, 1/29/12, www.huffingtonpost.com/ira-chernus/israel-iran-attack_b_1240510.html)

Bergman does cite some compelling arguments against an Israeli strike from former heads of Mossad (Israel's CIA). And …. not what the New York Times Magazine sees as its mission.

Iran---2NC


Fear of Iran is based on externalization of threats that guarantees extinction
Zizek 5 prof, Sociology, University of Ljubljana Give Iranian Nukes a Chance, http://www.lacan.com/zizekiranian.htm
But are nuclear arms in the hands of Iran's rulers …. now plans to continue Saddam's work of toppling the Iranian government.

Prolif---2NC


Anti-proliferation discourse obscures Western violence and masks the dangers of nuclear possession—causes war and ignores the root cause of their impacts
CarolCohn 6 Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Felicity Hill, Peace and Security Adviser to the United Nations Development Fund for Women and is responsible for UNIFEM's Peace and Security Programme, and Sara Ruddick, prof at philosophy and women's studies at Eugene Lang College, “The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction”, The WMDC is an independent international commission initiated by the Swedish Government on a proposal from the United Nations. Its task is to present proposals aimed at the greatest possible reduction of the dangers of weapons of mass destruction, including both short-term and long-trm approaches and both non-proliferation and disarmament aspects. The Commission will issue its report in early 2006, http://www.wmdcommission.org/files/No38.pdf
“Proliferation” is not a mere description or …. be difficult to justify on rational security grounds.

Soft Power---2NC


Soft power is the velvet glove of hegemony’s iron fist- masks implicit racism and violence
Amy Kaplan, Prof. of English @ Univ. of Pennslyvania, ‘3 American Quarterly 56.1, “Violent Belongings and the Question of Empire Today,” p. muse
Another dominant narrative about empire today, told by liberal … have been made throughout history, from the treatment of Indians and slaves to the internment of Japanese Americansduring World War II.

Space---2NC


And, space fantasy is the culmination of the long western imperial project of organizing the world in its own image—space is merely the final frontier onto which the aff projects its fear of instability in an attempt at total control which creates the conditions for warfare and extinction
Brennan 93 Teresa Brennan, 1993, Professor of at Cambridge, History After Lacan, 40-45
From the beginning, Lacan had asserted that the ‘lure of spatial … makes the ego fear (rightly) for its ownsurvival.

Deterrence---2NC


Deterrence is no more than an ideology based on a flawed methodology
Ron Hirschbein 5 Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Peace Institute at California State University, Chico Amassing the Tropes p 104ff
Advocates of automatic deterrence are generally ….attempts to liken the arsenal to a provocation can be neither confirmed nor disconfirmed.


Deterrence fails to take into account psychological factors—only the alt solves
we don’t agree w/ gendered language
Kaplowitz 90**research associate in IR, institute of govt affairs, UC Davis, PhD pol sci, Columbia, Noel, National Self-Images, Perception of Enemies, and Conflict Strategies: Psychopolitical Dimensions of International Relations, Political Psychology, 11;1,. 39-82, JSTOR, Amiles
Implicit in competitive and deterrent strategies are … and deterrent strategies, and will in any case add a sharp edge to them.


Kagan---2NC


Kagan --> endless warfare
Pringle, International Relations @ NYU, April 16, 2012 Joshua Pringle is a master's student of international relations at New York University as well as the senior editor of Worldpress.org. access 4/26/12 http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/3904.cfm
In his article "Not Fade Away: …. that the prosperity of all others relies on it is to egregiously misrepresent the hegemonic order.


Bilgin---2NC



Appeals to short-term impacts fails---more important to vote for the neg’s structural changes

Bilgin 4 Pinar IR @ Bilikent AND Adam David MORTON Senior Lecturer and Fellow of the Centre for the Study of Social and Global Justice IR @ Nottingham“From ‘Rogue’ to ‘Failed’ States? The Fallacy of Short-termism” Politics 24 (3) p. Wiley Interscience

Calls for alternative approaches to … academy and policymaking communities alike.


Trade K---2NC


Neoliberalism makes extinction inevitable—we control terminal impact uniqueness.
Korten 2et al – David C. Korten, Nicanor Perlas, and Vandana Shiva, December 2002. BA in psychology from Stanford University, MBA and Ph.D. degrees from the Stanford Business School, former Associate Professor of the Harvard University Graduate School of Business, activists. “GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY: THE PATH AHEAD,” http://davidkorten.org/CivilSocietyPathAhead.

At the end of World War II, a series of national ,,,, hope that the conference might advance the cause of people and nature.

Prefer our evidence—historical and empirically analysis of the impact of free trade is more valuable than theoretical economics.
Carmen Gonzalez, Spring 2006. Associate Professor, Seattle University School of Law. “Deconstructing the Mythology of Free Trade: Critical Reflections on Comparative Advantage,” Berkeley La Raza Law Journal 17.1, Ebsco.

The critique of comparative ,,,, and fertilizers, and depletion of local aquifers.


Our alternative is to rescript globalization to prioritize the poor above corporations. Globalization exists as a discourse circulating throughout political and academic circles—the alternative allows us to reshape the discourse of globalization and create beneficial outcomes.
Kelly 99—Philip F. , Fall 1999. Associate Professor of Geography at York University, Canada and previously with the Southeast Asian Studies Programme at the National University of Singapore. “The geographies and politics of globalization,” Progress in Human Geography 23.3, Ebsco.

To conclude this part of the discussion, four related points can ,,, of different outcomes (Gibson-Graham, 1996: 145).


Nature K---2NC


The unstable and constantly changing “nature” of the natural world produces anxiety for the perspective that seeks an eternal harmony and unchangable utopia – the response is to attempt to dominate and master that natural world by defining a single, immutable version of it

Stavrakakis 2kYannis Stavrakakis, Department of Gov’t at University of Essex, 2000, “On the Emergence of Green Ideology: the Dislocation Factor in Green Politics,” Discourse Theory and Political Analysis, eds: Howarth, Norbal and Stavrakais

The field of our relationship to nature is one…. of normality are upheld,or even elevated, as if they remained intact.



The affirmative’s premonitions of ecological Armageddon construct a fantasy of a natural world out of balance. This paranoic projection is only narcissism. The aff is sure that they must do something to save the world. In the meantime, they veil the radical complexity and chaotic processes of the external environment behind a façade of harmonious unity waiting to be realized. These fantasy formations have the deleterious consequence of making environmental politics seem a matter of grandiose political strategies, further distancing us from real changes in the socio-political fabric of society.

Swyngedouw 6Dept of Geography, School of Environment and Development, Manchester University, 2006 Eirk, “Impossible “Sustainability” and the Post-Political Condition,” Forthcoming in: David Gibbs and Rob Krueger (Eds.) Sustainable Development, http://www.liv.ac.uk/geography/seminars/Sustainabilitypaper.doc

Slavoj Žižek suggests in Looking Awry that the current …. how can this be achieved, and what sort of natures do we wish to inhabit.





AT Permutation---2NC



The permutation’s attempt to reform and civilize security is doomed

Neocleous, Prof of Gov, 8 [Mark Neocleous, Prof. of Government @ Brunel, Critique of Security, 185-6]

The only wayout of … enough to return the gift.143

AT Permutation (symb/real)---2NC


The perm sustains the aff’s fantasy by preventing us from confronting the Real
Zizek 4Conversations with Zizek, 12-13
The central issue is one of proximity; of maintaining a critical …. supplement in today’s realpolitik.

AT Doesn't Apply to State---2NC


Psychoanalysis does apply to groups such as the state
Kaplowitz 90 Noel Kaplowitz is a research associate at the Institute of Governmental Affairs, University of California at Davis in International Relations National Self-Images, Perception of Enemies, and Conflict Strategies: Psychopolitical Dimensions of International Relations Political Psychology Vol. 11, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 39-82 JSTOR
How a People Sees Itself Robert Lane (1969, p. 1), in his work …. subsequently resisted in the social sciences.

AT Experts---2NC


Expertism and prediction are doomed---reject their scenario-planning
Jonah Goldberg 11 is a visiting fellow at AEI "Seduced by the Cult of Experts" Aug 30 www.aei.org/article/104068
Seduced by the Cult of Experts It …. of the New York Times in 'reading' emerging situations."

AT Cede the Political---2NC


We solve---the alt leads to policy engagement
Noel Kaplowitz 90 is a research associate at the Institute of Governmental Affairs, University of California at Davis in International Relations National Self-Images, Perception of Enemies, and Conflict Strategies: Psychopolitical Dimensions of International Relations Political Psychology Vol. 11, No. 1 (Mar., 1990), pp. 39-82 JSTOR
Conceptions of national interest comprise a third ….knowledge can be used to design policies more likely to make for constructive outcomes.

AT Owen/Pragmatism---2NC


Owen concludes neg
Owen 2 David, Reader in Political Theory at the University of Southampton “Reorienting International Relations: On Pragmatism, Pluralism and Practical Reasoning”, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3
The first dimension concerns the relationship between … of the kind of challenge posed by postmodernists like Michael Shapiro and Rob Walker is to prevent us from becoming too readily bewitched.

Pragmatism looks at the world with rose-colored glasses---be skeptical of their invocation of problem solving at the expense of interrogating their security logic
McCormack, Lecturer in IR, 10 TaraMcCormack is Lecturer in International Politics at the University of Leicester and has a PhD in International Relations from the University of Westminster, Critique, Security and Power pp 42-46
Problem-solving theorythen has two functions. It serves asa … a distinction between facts and values.


AT Root Cause Focus Bad---2NC




This is a K of the aff---it says a confluence of factors make war inevitable---it proves the aff’s fantasy of stability can’t solve

Mythen & Walklate 8Gabe Mythen is Principal Lecturer in Sociology at Manchester Metropolitan University, AND Sandra Walklate is Eleanor Rathbone Chair of Sociology at Liverpool University, Terrorism, Risk and International Security: The Perils of Asking 'What If?' 2008; 39; 221Security Dialogue, ESBSCO

It is extraordinarily dangerous to declare, as the Bush administration has …. of democracy are threatened. As Hudson (2003: 225) warns:


AT Falsifiability---2NC


Falsification is an epistemically bankrupt standard---all theories of knowledge definitionally require axiomatic tautologies and then proceed with different methods of verification
Thiher 97 Allen is Curator's Professor of French in the Department of Romance Languages, University of Missouri. The Power of Tautology: The Roots of Literary Theory p 16
It is not always easy to see if a statement or series of …. adequacy of their results and recognize what the logician Willard Quine calls the possibility that multiple models may offer adequate explanations of the same empirical phenomena.1

And, our K is scientifically correct
Westen 98Drew, Department of Psychiatry Harvard Medical School, “The Scientific Legacy of Sigmund Freud Toward a Psychodynamically Informed Psychological Science,” Psychological Bulletin November 1998 Vol. 124, No. 3, 333-371s
Although commentators periodically declare that … with the wrong kind of person (see Greenberg & Mitchell, 1983 ).


AT Framework---2NC


The judge should assume the position of an analyst---interrogating the aff’s psychological investment in the politics of the status quo should be a prior question to their advantages and solvency claims---it’s not about what the neg does it’s about what the aff needs to do better
Žižek 2kSenior Researcher at the Institute for Social Science (University of Ljubljana), 2000, Slavoj, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, p. 124-127
Now I can also answer the obvious counter-argument …. the fantasy towards the Real.


Our framework is key to preventing error replication---examination of student’s personal values and motivations is neglected in planning discussions---our K is key to better decision-making
Talvitie 12Professor emeritus, Chief Researcher, Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland
Antti Talvitie, is a Professor emeritus and Chief Researcher at Aalto University School of Engineering. He has private practice as consultant and as psychoanalyst in the Washington DC area. Previously, Mr. Talvitie worked in the World Bank; was GM of Viatek Consulting Engineers in Espoo Finland; served as Director of Highway Construction and Maintenance in the Finnish Road Administration; and was Professor in the US, including Chairmanship of the Department Civil Engineering at the University of Buffalo. Mr. Talvitie holds Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and Certificate in Psychoanalysis from the Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. “The problem of trust in planning,” published in Planning Theory 2012 11: 257 originally published online 8 December 2011. http://plt.sagepub.com/content/11/3/257
Organization and institutions as creators of trust With a …. and a concept useful to the planning profession.


AT Framework (Dean)---2NC


We don’t need an alternative besides our framework of analysis---the fantasy will reveal itself as long as we continue asking questions to expose their concealment of the lack---in other words, it’s your job to confuse and frustrate them via a refusal to partake in their politics---this crushes the permutation
Dean 6Jodi, Prof of Political Science at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 2006, Zizek’s Politics. Xviii-xx
Žižek emphasizes that Lacan conceptualized this excessive place, ….our experiences as ideological subjects.

AT Framework---1NR


The judge should assume the position of an analyst---interrogating the aff’s psychological investment in the politics of the status quo should be a prior question to their advantages and solvency claims---it’s not about what the neg does it’s about what the aff needs to do better
Žižek 2kSenior Researcher at the Institute for Social Science (University of Ljubljana), 2000, Slavoj, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality, p. 124-127
Now I can also answer the obvious counter-argument to this … - that is to say; we are not actually `doing the impossible', traversing the fantasy towards the Real.

Beginning discussions at the intellectual level is more productive---it causes better social changes, takes the ideological blinders off of policy-makers, and reclaims the political---this is empirically proven by the end of the Cold War, peace movements in the 80s and the Intifada in the Middle East that can spillover globally---this is also a reason why they don’t get their aff
Bilgin 5 Assistant Prof of International Relations at Bilkent University, REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST A CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE, p54-
The point is that a broader security agenda requires students of … risk of constituting ‘threats to the future’ (Kubálková 1998: 193–201).

Our framework is key to preventing error replication---examination of student’s personal values and motivations is neglected in planning discussions---our K is key to better decision-making
Talvitie 12Professor emeritus, Chief Researcher, Aalto University School of Engineering, Finland
Antti Talvitie, is a Professor emeritus and Chief Researcher at Aalto University School of Engineering. He has private practice as consultant and as psychoanalyst in the Washington DC area. Previously, Mr. Talvitie worked in the World Bank; was GM of Viatek Consulting Engineers in Espoo Finland; served as Director of Highway Construction and Maintenance in the Finnish Road Administration; and was Professor in the US, including Chairmanship of the Department Civil Engineering at the University of Buffalo. Mr. Talvitie holds Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, and Certificate in Psychoanalysis from the Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. “The problem of trust in planning,” published in Planning Theory 2012 11: 257 originally published online 8 December 2011. http://plt.sagepub.com/content/11/3/257
Organization and institutions as creators of trust With a degree of … phase in “re-educating” one’s ego ideal, and how to evolve it to trust and a concept useful to the planning profession.

That’s key to preventing serial policy failure
Fotaki 10Marianna Organization Studies Group, Manchester Business School, “Why do public policies fail so often? Exploring health policy-making as an imaginary and symbolic construction,” Organization 2010 17: 703, Sage, 713-716
Towards an alternative conception of public policy-making So far, I have … being in organizations and society.

Subversive Ideology K (psycho module)


1NC


Ideological transgression is a continuation of the existing order—the power of the protest structurally depends upon the continued authority of the system. The affirmative functions as a carnivalesque reversal of authority—we make a gesture of non-compliance that posits us as the “real” masters of fate
Zizek 95 [Slavoj, International Director of the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities, president of the Society for Theoretical Psychoanalysis, LAW AND THE POSTMODERN MIND: SUPEREGO BY DEFAULT, Cardozo Law Review, 1995, 16 Cardozo L. Rev. 925]

In the traditional patriarchal society, … precisely with the national thing?


Critiques uphold the existing system because they are a safe outlet for transgression, which is a necessary supplement to any system of power.
Zizek 95 [Slavoj, International Director of the Birkbeck Institute for the Humanities, president of the Society for Theoretical Psychoanalysis, LAW AND THE POSTMODERN MIND: SUPEREGO BY DEFAULT, Cardozo Law Review, 1995, 16 Cardozo L. Rev. 925]

The proper way to approach "… , with a specific form of enjoyment).


Assume the position of the analyst to interrogate their libidinal desire to maintain the status quo
Žižek 2k Senior Researcher @ University of Ljubljana, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality 124-127

Now I can also answer the … the fantasy towards the Real.

2NC Link

Small acts of subversion (such as armchair ideological distance) make us more comfortable and therefor more invested in the political status quo.
McGowan 4 PhD from Ohio State English Department (Todd, 2004, “Introduction: Psychoanalysis after Marx”, End of Dissatisfaction? Jacques Lacan and the Emerging Society of Enjoyment”, p. 124-6) MH

In response to the command to enjoy, …. the actual enjoyment that would break from the prevailing symbolic authority.


2NC Stavrakkakis

The affirmative’s utopian vision of a peaceful global community will be impossible to realize—necessitating the scapegoating and elimination of the other. Lacanian political intervention is the only way out.
Stavrakakis, 99 (Yannis, Lacan and the Political, Visiting Professor, Department of Government, University of Essex, pages 99-100).

Our age is clearly an age of social fragmentation, …society as a highly problematic area (seminar of 18 June 1958).







Environment K

1NC


Environmental apocalypse rhetoric makes warming inevitable---creates apathy and denial that turn the case

Foust et al. 8 Christina R. Foust, Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, et al., with William O. Murphy, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, and Chelsea Stow, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, 2008, “Global Warming and Apocalyptic Rhetoric: A Critical Frame Analysis of US Popular and Elite Press Coverage from 1997-2007,” Paper Submitted to the Environmental Communication Division of the National Communication Association Convention in San Diego, 11/20, p. 22-23

Elements of an apocalyptic frame … steps to resolve the issue.



Quick-fix tech solutions fail and prioritizing climate change over other impacts creates a self-fulfilling prophecy that turns the case

Crist 7 Eileen, Assistant Professor at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Winter, “Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse,” Telos 141, Winter 2007, www.sts.vt.edu/faculty/crist/Beyond_the_Climate_Crisis.pdf

While the dangers of climate … destruction of life on Earth.



The alternative is to vote negative to reject an apocalyptic framing of climate change in favor of alternative frames that focus on human agency and responsibility---this is key to solvency

Foust et al. 8 Christina R. Foust, Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, et al., with William O. Murphy, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, and Chelsea Stow, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, 2008, “Global Warming and Apocalyptic Rhetoric: A Critical Frame Analysis of US Popular and Elite Press Coverage from 1997-2007,” Paper Submitted to the Environmental Communication Division of the National Communication Association Convention in San Diego, 11/20, p. 22-23

In conclusion, we hope to … for dealing with climate change

2NC Blame Game



Blame game turn---environmental security causes the blame game—fear mongering means no one takes responsibility—we blame other countries and groups of people—this not only causes violence but prevents addressing the root cause and absolves individual responsibility

Trennel 6Paul, Ph.D of the University of Wales, Department of International Politics, “The (Im)possibility of Environmental Security”

The most immediately striking mismatch … quest to address environmental issues.



2NC Cooperation Turn



Cooperation turn---securitizing the environment fails to address the root cause of the problem—the zero-sum mindset hinders transnational cooperation and causes conflict



Trennel 6Paul, Ph.D of the University of Wales, Department of International Politics, “The (Im)possibility of Environmental Security”



Secondly, the zero-sum mindset … likely to prove true solutions

2NC Buell



The aff’s environmental apocalypticism causes the worst acts violence under the guise of security---turns the case and makes environmental collapse inevitable

Buell 3Frederick—cultural critic on the environmental crisis and a Professor of English at Queens College and the author of five books, From Apocalypse To Way of Life, pages 185-186

Looked at critically, then, crisis … ties to clearly terminal “nature.”





Affect K

Vote Negative to Affirm the Initial Interruption of the Other and Refuse their Rational Justifications for Action.
Forging an Ethical Bond to the Other First Depends on One’s Rupture of Our Previous Model of Thinking – The 1AC Only Continues the Logic of the Oppressor By Immediately Supplying Context and Political Prescriptions to Something that Otherwise Resists Context Altogether – At Issue Here is What Justifications Should We Use to Influence Policy.
Zembylas, 2k8. (Michalinos Zemylas, Assistant Professor of Education @ Open U. “Bearing Witness to the Ethics and Politics of Suffering” April Online @ SpringerLink)
A critical approach to … their grounding in solidarity.

What Makes their Affirmative a Radical Gesture toward the Status Quo is Not its Description or Rational Dissection of the Problem But Instead the Openness to “that Which Cannot Be Named” – We Call it the Obtuse Meaning - The Obtuse Meaning is that Which Resists Any Signification. We Ask You to Endorse the Cognitive Interruption of the Encounter with the Other.
Oxman, 2k10. (Elena Oxman, U of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. “Sensing the Image: Roland Barthes and the Affect of the Visual” Volume 39, Number 2, 2010. Issue 122. Project Muse. KC)
Scientifically "disarmed," … produce a valuation?" (RF 284).

The Affirmative Methodology is Faulty – We Can NOT Approach the Irrational through Pre-Defined Criteria – This Would Only Submit Experience to the Tyranny of Rationality – Instead We Need to Value the “Unknowable Encounter”
Gorelick, Ph.D Candidate at SUNY Buffalo, 2k8, [Nathaniel, “Imaginary Renditions: Terror, Torture and the Possibility of an Excessive Ethics in Literature,” Theory & Event 11:2 | Project Muse]
On April 28, 2004, the popular …from a malevolent "them".

Econ K

1NC


Our first criticism is one of conflation---while economic growth might be good in the abstract, the way their impact evidence conflates economics with national security is bad---it causes mass violence under the guise of military subjugation---all who don’t conform to the economic order are slaughtered
Neocleous, Prof of Gov, 8Mark Neocleous, Prof. of Government @ Brunel, Critique of Security, p95-
In other words, the new … thus the politics of loyalty.

Our 2nd Links---their economic discourse serves to further the interests of the powerful---this causes structural violence and environmental destruction that turns the case
Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT
There is today an increasing … for the present purpose. (Ekins 1992: 1).


Only our alternative can resolve this
Nhanenge 7 Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT
These premises are critically importantlike environments and societies. (Norgaard 1994: 62, 70-73).

Also no impact
Miller 2k [Morris, Adjunct Professor of Administration at the University of Ottawa, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol 24 No 4]

The question may be reformulated. of violence to abort another).


And, it disincentives military buildup
Bennett and Nordstrom 2000 [department of political science at Penn State, D Scott and Timothy, The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 44:1, “Foreign policy substitutability and internal economic problems in enduring rivalries”, ProQuest, WEA]

Conflict settlement is also a distinct … economically with the United States.


Epistemology---2NC


Be skeptical of their impact claims and assign their adv zero weight—western economic calculations actively exclude key epistemological questions, making their knowledge production meaningless
Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT
Schumacher (1993: 33) also found that economics … economic activities, are dismissed. (Capra 1982: 196-198).

Democracy/VTL---2NC


Fetishization of economic growth is based on an andocentric system of calculations that destroys VTL and makes true democracy impossible
Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT
The most meaningful elements in … and natural values. (Des Jardins 2001: 56-60).

RC of War/Turns Coop---2NC



Fetisization of economic growth is the root cause of war---also turns cooperation

Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT

In spite of its ideological … drives men into conflict. (Schumacher 1993: 19-20, 25).


Fear of Decline---2NC



Belief in economic growth generates constant fear of decline—ensures war poverty environmental collapse extinction and loss of VTL

Nhanenge 7Jytte Masters @ U South Africa, paper submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in the subject Development Studies, “ECOFEMINSM: TOWARDS INTEGRATING THE CONCERNS OF WOMEN, POOR PEOPLE AND NATURE INTO DEVELOPMENT

Generation of wealth was an … , Others and nature, are presented.

Climate K v Bronx


1NC


Our first link is based off of their environmental representations---in the face of an ecological crisis, the affirmative has decided that the best way to respond is to bunker down, accept the inevitable, and try to make our infrastructure more resilient---this belief makes environmental destruction inevitable and abdicates our individual responsibility for the problem
Crist 7 Eileen, Assistant Professor at the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Winter, “Beyond the Climate Crisis: A Critique of Climate Change Discourse,” Telos 141, Winter 2007, www.sts.vt.edu/faculty/crist/Beyond_the_Climate_Crisis.pdf
Identifying climate change as the biggest threat to …. ongoing destruction of life on Earth.

The Judge should vote neg to reject those representations---instead of focusing solely on climate change, we should recognize our own individual responsibility for a litany of environmental problems
Foust et al. 8 Christina R. Foust, Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, et al., with William O. Murphy, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, and Chelsea Stow, Doctoral Student and Graduate Teaching Instructor in the Department of Human Communication Studies at the University of Denver, 2008, “Global Warming and Apocalyptic Rhetoric: A Critical Frame Analysis of US Popular and Elite Press Coverage from 1997-2007,” Paper Submitted to the Environmental Communication Division of the National Communication Association Convention in San Diego, 11/20, p. 22-23
In conclusion, we hope to inspire more …. will for dealing with climate change

And, their claim that “trade solves every impact” abdicates our responsibility in contributing to the problem in the first place---governments can now let the “free market deal with it” and continue on with unsustainable practices
Amitabh Tripathi 12 CGA, Office of Controller General of Accounts, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi, India “Globalization: Paradox, Apocalypse and Redemption-A Response to David Held” IUP Journal of International Relations; Apr2012, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p7-20, 14p
The character of this ‘global speak’is …. with collective issues, and use globalization as a proxy.

This is specifically true in the context of the 1AC---they’ve advanced the claim that “trade solves every impact”---really? Yes, trade might have it’s benefits – but let’s all be clear here – trade isn’t perfect, and the ignorance of the structural inequalities created by trade leadership masks the suffering of millions
Korten 2et al – David C. Korten, Nicanor Perlas, and Vandana Shiva, December 2002. BA in psychology from Stanford University, MBA and Ph.D. degrees from the Stanford Business School, former Associate Professor of the Harvard University Graduate School of Business, activists. “GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY: THE PATH AHEAD,” http://davidkorten.org/CivilSocietyPathAhead.
At the end of World War II, a series of national liberation movements freed the …, free trade, and privatization are the keys to growth. They did not achieve all their aims in Johannesburg, but they dealt a serious blow to the hope that the conference might advance the cause of people and nature.



A negative ballot is key to rescripting globalization to prioritize the poor above corporations. Globalization exists as a discourse circulating throughout political and academic circles---the alternative allows us to reshape the discourse of globalization and create beneficial outcomes
Kelly 99—Philip F. , Fall 1999. Associate Professor of Geography at York University, Canada and previously with the Southeast Asian Studies Programme at the National University of Singapore. “The geographies and politics of globalization,” Progress in Human Geography 23.3, Ebsco.

To conclude this part of the discussion, four related points can be made. First, globalization must be …. invite many different actors to participate in the realization of different outcomes (Gibson-Graham, 1996: 145).


[insert some psycho cards here]

2NC Conflation K


The 1ac securitizes the poor---their attempt to emancipate through fear leads to calculus of necessity killing and endless warfare---turns the case
Dillon and Reid 9 Professors of Politics and International Relations[Michael—Prof of Politics @ Lancaster University and Julien Professor of International Relations, University of Lapland, The Liberal Way of War: Killing to Make Life Live, pg 88-89]
By such mechanisms, and according to such imperatives, liberal biopolitics …. Its global assay or audit of life is thus an emergency audit.

2NC Trade K


Globalization discourse benefits the powerful --> global income inequality
Amitabh Tripathi 12 CGA, Office of Controller General of Accounts, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi, India “Globalization: Paradox, Apocalypse and Redemption-A Response to David Held” IUP Journal of International Relations; Apr2012, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p7-20, 14p
Disjunctures and Solutions These collective issues, Held argues, are being …. is only about competition from China and India?

Their globalization discourse is told from the standpoint of the dominant---it displaces agency and makes their impacts inevitable
Amitabh Tripathi 12 CGA, Office of Controller General of Accounts, Ministry of Finance, New Delhi, India “Globalization: Paradox, Apocalypse and Redemption-A Response to David Held” IUP Journal of International Relations; Apr2012, Vol. 6 Issue 2, p7-20, 14p
Conclusion It would be a truism to suggest that individuals, social … politics. To think otherwise is to disregard the political realities of our times.


2NC Daly


The impact outweighs—you have an ethical obligation to reject their traditional utilitarian rationale in favor of stopping massive suffering that can’t be quantified within their framework
Daly 4—and Zizek Professor at the University of Ljublijana and general badass; Zizek’s homeboy and senior Lecturer in Politics in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at University College, Northampton, 2004 (Slavoj, Conversations with Zizek Polity Press, 14-16)

For Zizek it is imperative that we cut through this Gordian knot of postmodern protocol and …. not attempt to conceal this fact or reduce the status of the abject Other to that of a ‘glitch’ in an otherwise sound matrix.


2NC Turns Neolib/Katrina


The aff subordinates the state to the mechanisms of capital and growth: this ensures authoritarian politics will results in more disposable bodies, not less—Katrina is a symptom, not a cause.
Giroux 10, Henry A. Global TV Network Chair Professorship at McMaster University in the English and Cultural Studies Department.t r u t h o u t, Living in the Age of Imposed Amnesia: The Eclipse of Democratic Formative Culture, 11-16, http://archive.truthout.org/living-age-imposed-amnesia-the-eclipse-democratic-formative-culture65144

The financial elite scorn the social costs of their actions; they focus … as a collective aspiration.


2NC Consumption 1st


You should prioritize the question of consumption over production---the focus on the latter obscures the former
Princen 3 Thomas Princen, Associate Professor of Natural Resources and Environmental Policy in the School of Natural Resources and Environment at the University of Michigan, where he also co-directs the Workshop on Consumption and Environment, "Principles for Sustainability: From Cooperation and Efficiency to Sufficiency," Global Environmental Politics 3.1, 2003, p. 33-50
Global timber harvesters are squeezing more and more fiber out of a hectare of forest and yet deforestation proceeds unabated. The automobile and petrochemical industries are creating more …, using up, diminishing regenerative capacity, engendering irreversibilities and non-substitutabilities. 3 Global water management illustrates the need for such a focus.