1AC- Dowling (Alwin and Tahir)

1AC Dowling Catholic

Contention 1: Terrorism

Recent cuts leave port security vulnerable – we don’t have the funds to expand and adapt to problems
AAPA 3/7 [American Association of Port Authorities], (“Maritime Security”, http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/Maritime%20Security%202012.pdf, 3/7/12)
AAPA urges Congress to continue ... should remain ¶ at the federal level.

Terrorists are already stealing the material for nukes now – it’s not a question of IF the attack will occur, but WHEN
NPR 3/26 (Quoting: Matthew Bunn, associate professor at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, “Report Examines Effort To Secure Loose Nukes”, http://www.npr.org/2012/03/26/149411800/report-examines-effort-to-secure-loose-nukes, 3/26/12)
As Mike Shuster said a moment ago, the … yet uncaught, still have a substantial chunk of this highly enriched uranium.

Building a weapon is surprisingly easy – it’s just a question of if they can get enough material for the bomb
Maerli 2k(Morten Bremer Science Program Fellow, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Quoting: Luis W. Alvarez, prominent nuclear weapons scientist for Manhattan Project, “Relearing the ABCs: Terrorists and ‘Weapons of Mass Destruction;.” THE NONPROLIFERATION REVIEW, Summer-2K, p. 111-112.)
A striking parallel can be seen in the discussion… no more than 300 kilograms would lead to a nuclear explosive.

Attack is on the brink – anti-Muslim video
Ephron 9/15 (Dan Ephron has been Newsweek's Jerusalem bureau chief since January 2010. Previously, he served as a national-security correspondent and deputy bureau chief for the magazine in Washington. His stories have also appeared in The Boston Globe, The New Republic, and Esquire. “As Muslims Protest, America Is on Alert” http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/09/15/as-muslims-protests-america-is-on-alert.html)
The bodies of Ambassador Christopher … the year, it will be a miracle.”

The assassination of Bin Laden
LA Times 5/7 (Los Angeles Times news service, quoting Al Qaeda, “Al Qaeda threatens revenge against U.S.”, http://articles.latimes.com/2011/may/07/world/la-fg-qaeda-warning-20110507, 5/7/12)
Reporting from Islamabad, Pakistan… the people killed were militants.

Cargo is the most probable method of attack for nuclear weapons
NYT 6/26 (New York Times news service, includes opinions from: Stephen Flynn, President of the Center for National Policy and CISAC Consulting Professor at Stanford and Graham T. Allison, Harvard political scientist, “Cargo, the Terrorists’ Trojan Horse”,http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/27/opinion/the-dangerous-delay-on-port-security.html)
MILLIONS of cargo containers are unloaded ... nation can no longer risk such delays.

Increasing port security will reduce the risk of a terrorist attack
John Medalia 6 Specialist in National Defense at the Congressional Research Service “Terrorist Nuclear "Attacks on Seaports: Threat and Response” published 2006 http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RS21293.pdf ) RF
What Priority Should Port Security… ports and other potential targets.

Terrorists will attack by the end of next year – it’s the consensus of experts
Allison 12 (Graham, Ph. D in Political Science from Harvard, Director of the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Professor of Government at Harvard, Special Advisor to the Secretary of Defense under President Reagan, ‘Nuclear Terrorism Fact Sheet’, http://www.nuclearsummit.org/files/FACT_SHEET_Final.pdf)
Assessments by Officials with the Best… by the end of 2013.”

Ports will be targeted – they resonate with the underlying rationale of global extremist groups
Chalk 8 (Peter, Senior Political Scientist at RAND, “The Maritime Dimension of International Security Terrorism, Piracy, and Challenges for the United States”, www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2008/RAND_MG697.pdf)
It is also worth bearing in mind that… attention if decisively struck.

Nuclear terrorism leads to extinction
Ahmed 4 (Mohamed Sid, political analysis, Extinction!, Al-Abram Weekly Online, August 26 – September 1,http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm, ME)
A nuclear attack by terrorists will ... infects the whole planet, we will all be losers.

Even if the attack fails it causes Russia and China war
Ayson 10 (Robert, Professor of Strategic Studies and Director of the Centre for Strategic Studies: New Zealand at the Victoria University of Wellington,“After a Terrorist Nuclear Attack: Envisaging Catalytic Effects,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, Volume 33, Issue 7, July, Available Online to Subscribing Institutions via InformaWorld)
A terrorist nuclear attack, and ... might not help the chances of nuclear restraint.

That destroys the environment and causes INSTANT extinction
Wickersham 11 (Bill, University of Missouri adjunct professor of Peace Studies and a member of The Missouri University Nuclear Disarmament Education Team, citing: Steven Starr, senior scientist with Physicians for Social Responsibility, “Nuclear weapons still a threat”, http://www.columbiatribune.com/news/2011/sep/27/nuclear-weapons-still-a-threat/, 9/27/11)
Nearly 20 years after the Cold War ended… deployed at Knob Noster.

Bioterrorism is incredibly easy
Allison 9-7 (Graham Allison is director of the Harvard Kennedy School’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. “Living in the Era of Megaterror” http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/08/opinion/living-in-the-era-of-megaterror.html#h[IaQAbl,2,WtdFsa,2])
Capabilities for producing … will live in an era of megaterror.

A recent influenza strain was created that would cause extinction if bio terrorists had the information – this is comparatively the WORST impact
Prado 12 (Mark Evan, a physicist in the Washington, D.C. region working for the Pentagon in advanced planning in the space program, citing: The Office of Biological Activities (OSB), a division of the US government's National Institute of Health (NIH) which promotes science, safety, and ethics in biotechnology, “Human Extinction by Biotechnology and Nanotechnology”, http://www.permanent.com/human-extinction-biotechnology-nano.html)
As biotechnology has advanced,… Then came the year 2001.

The information for this strain was released last week – that means it’s a race against time for the aff
GSN 12/4 (Global Security Newswire, “Scientists Air Worries Over Proposed Rules on Avian Influenza Studies”, http://www.nti.org/gsn/article/scientists-air-worries-over-proposed-rules-bird-flu-studies/, 12/4/12)
The Obama administration last week… outcome, according to Science.

A port attack shuts down naval power
Watts 5 (CDR Bob Watts is a 1985 graduate of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy and has served six tours at sea conducting drug/migrant operations, most recently commanding the USCGC STEADFAST (WMEC 623). He is currently assigned as the chief of drug and migrant interdiction at Coast Guard Headquarters, where his responsibilities include drafting migrant policy and strategy, including planning for mass migration. A 2006 graduate of the Naval Postgraduate School’s Center for Homeland Defense and Security, he has advanced degrees from the Naval War College, Old Dominion University, American Military University, and is a doctoral candidate at coastline and 3.4 million square miles of territorial seas and exclusive economic zones in the U.S. maritime domain)
Connecting the continental United States to this ... can we learn from the experience?

Unimpeded access to all ports is critical to operation
Talor et al. 7 (Bruce Taylor director of research at the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) in Washington, D.C; Antony Pate Bruce Kubu;) Protecting America’s Ports: Promising Practices A Final Report Submitted https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/221075.pdf)
The U.S. Navy has considerable ... already overburdened airlift resources.

Maritime power solves all war – deters conflict and ensures defense
Whiteneck and Clark 11 (Commander Bryan Clark U.S. Navy (Retired) and Dr. Dan Whiteneck, “Strategic Choices at the Tipping Point”, Proceedings Magazine - February 2011 Vol. 137/2/1,296)
In light of global economic and strategic realities, here’s ... it will indeed be at a “tipping point.”

The U.S. navy’s missile defense makes escalation of war impossible
Carey, 06- Served in the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and was the Commanding Officer of an AEGIS Ship (John, Washington Times, "SPECIAL TO THE WASHINGTON TIMES", June 26th 2006, Lexis Nexis,)
Ronald Reagan's vision… at-sea; or in the U.S.

Recent tests prove success
DON 10/25 (Department of the Navy, United States of America, “Ballistic Missile Defense System Successfully Conducts Largest Missile Defense Flight Test In History”, http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=70345, 10/25/12)
PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii (NNS) -- The Missile Defense Agency (MDA)… 71 flight test attempts since 2001.

Contention 2: Economy

A terrorist attack DESTROYS the global economy and trade
Flynn 6 (Stephen, President of the Center for National Policy and CISAC Consulting Professor at Stanford, “Port Security Is Still a House of Cards”, 3/9, http://www.cfr.org/port-security/continued-vulnerability-global-maritime-transportation-system/p10074)
It is just a question of time before… but an urgent global priority.

A port attack spills over to the global economy
Schanzer and Eyerman 10(From the IBM Center for the Business of Government, David H., Associate Professor Sanford School of Public Policy at Duke University, Joe, Senior Research Methodologist Director, Health Security Program RTI International, “Strategic Risk Management in Government: A Look at Homeland Security”, Homeland Security Council; 3/31, http://www.homelandcouncil.org/pdfs/digital_library_pdfs/ibmstrategicriskmanagementingovt.pdf)
Scenario Three: Direct Attack on a U.S. ...consumer need, would quickly run out of food.

The U.S. marine transportation system is the lifeblood of the global economy – an attack guarantees total economic collapse
Allen 8 (Admiral Thad, U.S. Coast Guard, “Friend or Foe? Tough to Tell”, U.S. Naval Institute, www.pacnwest.org/docs/friendorfoe.pdf)
Some Americans take for granted how… global financial marketplace.

Economic decline causes war
Royal 10 — Jedidiah Royal, Director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense, M.Phil. Candidate at the University of New South Wales, 2010 (“Economic Integration, Economic Signalling and the Problem of Economic Crises,” Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal and Political Perspectives, Edited by Ben Goldsmith and Jurgen Brauer, Published by Emerald Group Publishing, ISBN 0857240048, p. 213-215)
Less intuitive is how periods of… considered ancillary to those views.

Trade solves all war – empirics and analysis prove
Griswold 11 (Daniel, 2011, Director, Herbert A. Stiefel Center for Trade Policy Studies, Cato Institute, “Free Trade and the Global Middle Class,” Hayek Society Journal Vol. 9 (2011), http://www.cato.org/pubs/articles/Hayek-Society-Journal-Griswold.pdf)
Our more globalized world has also… by civil conflict and war.

Contention 3: Solvency

Visualization and imaging technology solves

PPIC 6 (Public Policy Institute of California, Citing: Jon D. Haveman, RAND policy expert and Joward Shatz, Senior Economist at RAND, “Protecting the Nation’s Seaports:¶ Balancing Securityand Cost”, http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/report/r_606jhr.pdf, 2006)

As documentation cannot be taken ... emissions, which are then detected.