Aesthetics 1AC

The United States Federal Government should substantially increase support for the development of an Orbiting Unification Ring Satellite in space.


Contention 1: Art in Space

Aesthetics order and give meaning to our understanding of Space—the aesthetics of space control whether we feel alienation or empathy. In the status quo, we have an alienated, fundamentally western view of the world and space that locks out empathy
Lockhard. 2006 [Elizabeth, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Political Science Univeristy of Hawaii Honolulu, Habitation in Space: The Relationship between Aesthetics & Dwelling Elizabeth Song Lockard1 University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, 96813 http://www.spacearchitect.org/pubs/AIAA-2006-7331.pdf]
"I. Introduction: Why is Aesthetics .... Aeronautics and Astronautics 3"


These aesthetic sensibilities ride everything--Our conception of what is aesthetically “good” or “bad” ORGANIZES and DOMINATES all other spheres of thought and inquiry—from education to politics to philosophy to morality. EVERY DECISION WE MAKE is influenced by our aesthetic tastes—when something just “feels” right, or a plan “looks good” or an idea “resonates with you”, that is the aesthetic of Western domination at work.
Taylor, 1998 [Clyde R. Taylor, film scholar and literary/cultural essayist, is Professor at the Gallatin School and in Africana Studies, New York University. His publications include Vietnam and Black America and the script for Midnight Ramble, a documentary about early Black independent cinema.“The Mask of Art—breaking the aesthetic contract” Chapter 1]
"Reality is socially constructed." ... these cultures, like the Mona Lisa, for instance.'"


The status quo’s aesthetic orientation toward the environment will result in inevitable destruction and extinction—it is up to artists to forge the conditions for our escape
Woods, 2008[Arthur, I studied psychology, art and literature at Mercer University in Macon, Georgia. After graduation with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1970 and completing U.S. military service in 1972, I began my art career in California before moving to Switzerland in 1974 where I now live and work. I am married to Heidi and have two children, Louis and Alexander. In the mid 1980's in initiated the O.U.R.S. Project, a cultural and astronautical organization dedicated to introducing, nurturing and expanding a cultural dimension to humanity's astronautical endeavors. In addition to being a vehicle for the development of my space art projects, the O.U.R.S. Project organized the first European Space Art Workshop held in Montreux, Switzerland in 1992 and was co-organizer, along with Leonardo/OLATS and the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) of the 9 space art workshops (1997-2005) held first in Paris and then later in other venues. In cooperation with Leonardo/OLATS/IAA and with the sponsorship of ESA, we developed the “Spacearts: The Space Art Database” project which has been online since 2003.The O.U.R.S. Project also organized or co-organized international exhibitions of space art held at the International Astronautical Congresses (IAC) in Oslo, 1995, Turin, 1997 and Melbourne in 1998. I served as co-chair of the IAA sub-committee on the arts and literature and from 1996 – 2003, I was involved in the planning of the IAA sessions related to the arts and humanities held at the annual IAC congresses. I have co-organized several ESA and IAA studies including the design and maintenance of the related websites: ESA study – “ITSF: Innovative Technologies in Science Fiction for Space Applications”: which has also conducted two international competitions for Science Fiction short stories. IAA study - “The Impact of Space Activities on Society”: where world leaders were invited to comment on the importance of space activities. IAA study - “Space Expectations: How the Public Views Space Activities”: a multilingual survey in 7 languages of the public’s expectations about space. The preliminary results will be presented at the current IAC in Glasgow and please take the survey.www.arsastronautica.com
Arthur Woods November 11, 2002
Excerpted from the Tate-in-Space discussion]
""Why Art in Space?...
"spaceoptimism" , " spaceism" or ".............." What should it be called?"

Specifically, we should undertake a massive art project in space—the Orbiting Unification Ring Satellite is a massive, cirular sculpture in space that powerfully communicates an aesthetic of togetherness and empathy, encouraging environmental solutions
Woods, 1992 [Arthur, Arthur Woods is a space artist and cultural entrepreneur. He spent his youth living near the Kennedy space center in Florida where he witnessed the beginning of the American space program and where he later worked during the Apollo program. In 1970 he graduated from Mercer University in Macon, Georgia, USA with studies in psychology, literature and art. After beginning his career as an artist in California, he settled in Switzerland in 1974. In the mid-eighties he was one of several artists around the world who proposed to create art works in the environment of outer space. His Orbiting Unification Ring Satellite (OURS) project to put "a circle in the sky" to celebrate the new millennium with a large orbital sculpture led to the manufacture of a prototype inflatable space sculpture (OUR-SPS) built in 1990 by NPO Energia in the Soviet Union and later to the realization of two art-in-space projects flown on the Mir space station: the spaceflight of his Cosmic Dancer Sculpture in 1993 and "Ars Ad Astra: the 1st Art Exhibition in Earth Orbit" in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA) on its EuroMir95 mission. He is currently a co-developer of the online research project: ITSF - Innovative Technologies in Science Fiction for Space Applications initiated by ESA. He is founder and president the OURS Foundation - a non-profit cultural and astronautical organization and is founder and CEO of Swissart GmbH an Internet company that develops and maintains "swissart.net" - Switzerland's art portal for the contemporary arts. He is a corresponding member of the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA), a Fellow of the International Association of Astronomical Artists (FIAAA) and a guest lecturer at the International Space University (ISU) http://www.ours.ch/OURS-Paper-ESW-Montreaux-1992.pdf.]
"As we approach the year 2000 we are becoming ... same time, offers to preserve and restore the environment of our planet.

Our use of art in space is critical to breaking out of the catastrophic, apocalyptic cycle of the status quo
Shukaitis, Lecturer at Univesity of Essex, 2009 [Stevphen Shukaitis is an editor at Autonomedia and lecturer at the University of Essex., Space is the (non)place: Martians, Marxists, and the outer space of the
radical imagination, © 2009 The Author. Editorial organisation © 2009 The Editorial Board of the Sociological Review. Published by Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, download University of Chicago]
"I’m looking for my first trip up into space...of late-modern capitalism’ (2008: 140)."

Contention 2: Space Law as Art

Laws are just descriptions. They enact, and are enacted by, particular aesthetic tastes and conventions. Just as there are different styles of books and different styles of movies, there exist different styles of law, aesthetic choices within law that determine and dominate its interpretations and outcomes
Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]
"Law is an aesthetic enterprise. ... within which American law is cast."


The status quo of space policy, with its focus on budget reductions and stodgy conservitavism, is a grid aesthetic --
it superimposes lines over the world to try to bring it order and simplicity. Everything, everyone, every space program, has a place and a value, a compartment, and coordinates
Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]
"I. The Aesthetic of the Grid In the grid aesthetic ... by a distinct and bounded legal concept."

This attempt to organize reality into an orderly queue of value is an attempt to obscure and paper over the complication, both good and bad, of the world. The world is reduced to geometric routine
Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]
Understandably, the recurrent contact .... and order of law in terms of its own criteria. n44"


This sort of legal aesthetics CHANGES WHO WE ARE and EDUCATES US IN A PARTICULAR WAY—this obsession with law as grid and geometry sublimates the self to simplicity, sacrificing subjectivity and circumventing creativity.

Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]

"Each aesthetic creates the self in its own image, and thus ... exact mirror image of the grid: pure law."

This is an education against creativity, and is an education that inevitably fails. A failure to allow for educated creativity and personality means our excesses and irrationalities have no outlet but aggression and war. We have a choice: Orient ourselves towards individual, creative release, or engage in unending wars that risk our very survival.
Read, 55 [Herbert, Education through Art: A Revolutionary Policy Source: Art Education, Vol. 8, No. 7 (Nov., 1955)]
"We might begin, perhaps, by establishing a necessary connection ...the same serenity, the same con-dition of psychic integration"


Art solves: An education in rationalism has no value unless tempered with, and unified by, and acknowledgement and embrace of anti-logical creative principles. Vote aff to embrace creativity, in law and in art. It is only through this that we can reform humanity via a revolution of the human spirit.

Thistlewood, 2002 [David, “HERBERT READ”, PROSPECTS: the quarterly review of comparative education

(Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. 24, no.1/2, 1994, p. 375–90]

"By this means Read constructed a co-ordinate system that would account for the characteristics ... in the consciousness of a common destiny (Read, 1948. p." 15).


The role of the ballot is to EVALUATE THE AESTHETIC OUTCOMES OF LAW FIRST. The plan, is not just a substantive commitment with effects in the real world—AND NEITHER IS THE LAW. The law of the status quo asserts a particular aesthetic, we assert a different one—a discussion of these aesthetic outcomes must come prior to a discussion of substance—aesthetics determine the substance, interpretation, and enactment of law.
Put simply—If we win the aesthetics of the plan are better than the aesthetics of the status quo, we win.
Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]
"The various aesthetics, as suggested, are...is not at all conducive to one's own aesthetics."


The impact calculus that justifies the status quo has its basis in the idea that the law must weigh the competing material outcomes of policies in order to advance society—this is an approach to the law that is tied up the aesthetic of balancing considerations. This aesthetic of balancing and calculating material outcomes invariably creates safe, middle of the road solutions and cannot allow for creativity, and thus is incapable of solving our impacts

Schlag, 2002 [Pierre, Dheidt’s Real Father/BFF and Byron White Professor of Law, University of Colorado School of Law, “Commentary: The Aesthetics of American Law” 115 Harv. L. Rev. 1047]

"II. The Energy Aesthetic The energy aesthetic leaves the stasis of the ... formula and tomorrow's mindless incantation. n132"






















Space Mil AFF

Thus, the plan: The United States federal government should deploy a substantial space-based Brilliant Pebbles Ballistic Missile Defense Program.

Contention 1 is Inherency

The United States has no Space-based BMD now
Baker Spring April 12 2010 The Heritage Foundation, The Cutting Edge
http://www.thecuttingedgenews.com/index.php?article=12104
Second, the BMDRR ... network of space-based interceptors.

Contention 2 is Hegemony


Space weaponization and conflict is inevitable - winning the race for dominance is key to US hegemony

Kitfield 10-Senior Correspondent @ The National Journal, writer for Air Force Magazine, B.A. Journalism, University of Georgia, distinguished writer on defense, national security, and foreign policy, author of two books on national security, [James, Air Force Magazine, “CrowdedCongested Space” August 2010,http://www.airforce-magazine.com/MagazineArchive/Pages/2010/August%202010/0810space.aspx
In the “commons” above ... the report concluded.

Military dominance is entirely dependent on space assets - weaponization is key to ensure their protection
Everett Dolman, PhD and Professor of Comparative Military Studies @ US Air Force School of Advanced Air and Space Studies and Recipient of Central Intelligence’s Outstanding Intelligence Analyst Award, September 14, 2005 “ US Military Transformation and Weapons in Space,” http://www.e-parl.net/pages/space_hearing_images/ConfPaper%20Dolman%20US%20Military%20Transform%20&%20Space.pdf

The United States has embarked on a revolutionary ... combat inventory of the United States.

U.S. unipolar dominance is the only way to maintain international stability – withdrawal guarantees global war
Robert Kagan, Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 7/19/2007, “End of Dreams, Return of History”, http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/07/end_of_dreams_return_of_histor.html

This is a good thing, and it should ... likely to draw the United States back in again.

Space power is critical to global stability and conflict resolution - provides transparency to reduce miscalculation, strengthens dissuasion power, and deters small conflicts
M.V. Smith, Colonel, PhD in Politics and IR @ University of Reading, 2011 “Chapter 17: Security and Spacepower, Part of “Toward a Theory of Spacepower,” Edited by Charles Lutes and Peter Hays, National Defense University Press, http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/pdf/spacepower/spacepower.pdf
Spacepower provides different ways to manage security ... interconnecting glue making terrestrial deterrence more effective.

Inability to resolve small conflicts makes the escalation of global nuclear war inevitable
BOSCO 2006 (David, Senior Editor of Foreign Policy, Post Gazette, July 30 2006, “Keeping an eye peeled for World War III” http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06211/709477-109.stm)
The understanding that small ... world learned about managing conflict?

Scenario 2: Rogue States

North Korean ICBM strikes are a real threat
Klingner 11 (Bruce Klingner, writer for the WSJ and the Senior Research Fellow for Northeast Asia at The Heritage Foundation's Asian Studies Center, January 12, 2011, http://www.heritage.org/research/commentary/2011/01/north-koreas-imminent-threat)
Secretary of Defense Robert Gates made ... increasing in range."


North Korea will be motivated to attack because diplomacy fails – missile defense is key

Bruce Klingner I am Senior Research Fellow for Northeast Asia at The Heritage Foundation. March 10, 2011 “North Korea – a Multi-Faceted Threat to Peace and Stability” The Heritage Foundation

http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2011/03/north-korea-a-multi-faceted-threat-to-peace-and-stability

North Korea – a Multi-Faceted .. to develop and deploy missile defense systems;


These Rogue State attacks are the biggest threat today, only space weapons solve

(Dolman and Cooper 11, Everett Dolman and Henry Cooper, Everett Dolman is Phd and Prof. Military studies at USAF SAAS, former NSA analyst where he received the Outstanding Intelligence Analyst Award. Henry Cooper is former DoD deputy executive and Chairman of the High Frontier think-tank and journal. This appeared in Chapter 19 of “Toward a Theory of Spacepower”, edited by Charles Lutes and Peter Hays, ISBN 978-1780393858, 03-07-11, gd, http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/pdf/spacepower/spacepower.pdf)

The most likely and most ... survival of our way of life


One nuclear missile strike on the US leads to extinction – Economic, Infrastructure, Transportation collapse

Lambakis '7 (Steven Lambakis, National Security and International Affairs Analyst specializing in Space Power policy studies, “Missile Defense From Space”, Policy Review, No. 141, February & March 2007, http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/5516446.html)

Now just imagine the costs imposed by a ... weapons are as mind-numbing as they are terrifying.


Contention 3 is China:


FIRST – weaponization by China is inevitable – tests, proven capability, and PLA intentions
Wall 5/12 – SPACE Senior Writer (2011, Mike, “Washington Worries China Will Challenge U.S. Dominance in Space,” http://www.space.com/11646-china-space-policy-united-states.html, ISB)
U.S. power brokers aren't sure how ... PLA’s recent military posture."


China will act solely in its interest

Richard D. Fisher, Jr, , is a Senior Fellow, International Assessment and Strategy Center (June 2004 to present) and the Director of the Center’s Project on Asian Security and Democracy. He was formerly an Asian Security Fellow at the Center for Security Policy, editor of the Jamestown Foundation’s China Brief, a Senior Fellow with the Republican Policy Committee of the House of Representatives and Director of the Asian Studies Center of the Heritage Foundation. His articles and reports have appeared in numerous national newspapers and journals.Published by Praeger Security International, September 2008 “China’s Military Modernization: Building for Regional and Global Reach” International Assesment and Strategy Center”

http://www.strategycenter.net/research/pageID.48/default.asp

China's rise to global economic and strategic ... pursuing a far-reaching strategic agenda.


Our understanding of threats that justifies our plan takes into account the internal workings of the Chinese government. The negative views the Chinese government as a single entity and this confounds their analysis and judgment.
Richard D. Fisher, Jr, Book “China’s Military Modernization”, Praeger Security International, Ch. 1, Pg. 41-42, is a Senior Fellow, International Assessment and Strategy Center (June 2004 to present) and the Director of the Center’s Project on Asian Security and Democracy. He was formerly an Asian Security Fellow at the Center for Security Policy, editor of the Jamestown Foundation’s China Brief, a Senior Fellow with the Republican Policy Committee of the House of Representatives and Director of the Asian Studies Center of the Heritage Foundation. His articles and reports have appeared in numerous national newspapers and journals.Published by Praeger Security International, September 2008
This chapter examines the significant influence of China's ... its increasing reliance on access to the
Military journals show that China intends to weaponize space
MacDonald 11, Bruce W. MacDonald is a member of the United States Institute of Peace, former member of CFR, see 1st line of ard, 5-11-11,gd, http://www.usip.org/files/resources/bmacdonald_testimony.pdf
Prior to USIP, I led the Council on Foreign Relations study of China ... urgently needed and are important to U.S. security.

US dominant now, but Chinese political factions wanting a space 1st strike are gaining popularity
(Cox 08, Stan Cox is a writer, columnist for ~500 newspapers, worked for the US dpt of Agriculture, has a Ph.D from Iowa State University in agricultural genetics, 9-28-07, gd, http://www.fwweekly.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2850)
In the depths of the Cold War ... he said, “we can certainly have superiority.”


China 1st Strike in Space would be a part of Taiwanese invasion
(France and Adams 05, Martin France and Richard Adams are Chiefs of the Space Superiority program at Peterson AFB, CO, originally published in the High Frontier Journal, Winter 2005, gd, http://www.spacedebate.org/evidence/1844/)
The keys to any Chinese military action ... ability of US forces to react rapidly or effectively.


US-China war causes nuclear war
Hunkovic, 2009– American Military University [Lee J, 2009, “The Chinese-Taiwanese Conflict Possible Futures of a Confrontation between China, Taiwan and the United States of America”, http://www.lamp-method.org/eCommons/Hunkovic.pdf] avidK
A war between China, Taiwan and the United ... in the world that will not be economically and/or militarily affected by it.

Contention 4 is Solvency


The Wall Street Journal 2001, Ambassador Henry F. Mr. Cooper, a Ph.D. engineer, was the director of the Strategic Defense Initiative during the Bush administration and was ambassador and chief U.S. negotiator at the Geneva Defense and Space Talks during the Reagan administration., The Wall Street Journal May 7 2001, “Why Not Space-Based Missile Defense?” http://www.highfrontier.org/Highfrontier/main/about/WSJ-Why%20Not%20Space-Based%20MIssile%20Defense.htm
This is surprising because a space-based interceptor concept ... fail to revive this important program.


Kinetic Kill interceptors have built in defenses against countermeasures
Foreign Policy Analysis 09’ By an Independent Working Group (Co Chairmen: Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. Shelby Cullom Davis Professor of International Security Studies The Fletcher School, Tufts University President, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis Dr. William R. Van Cleave Professor Emeritus Department of Defense and Strategic Studies Missouri State University), 2009 Report, http://www.ifpa.org/pdf/IWG2009.pdf, The Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis
A space-based KEI is designed to hit a ballistic missile ... the capabilities of the 1990 Brilliant Pebbles.


Brilliant Pebbles solves—One interceptor can destroy 10 warheads at once
Donald R. Baucom. (Donald Baucom is the historian of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization. He is a graduate of the Air Force Academy and served as a commissioned officer for twenty-eight years. He has taught history and strategy at the Academy and the Air War College and has directed the Air Power Research Institute at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Dr. Baucom was editor of the Air University Review, currently the Airpower Journal. He is the author of The Origins of SDI, which won the Organization of American Historians’ Leopold Prize in History.) 04. http://www.highfrontier.org/Archive/hf/D_Baucom_Rise%20and%20Fall%20of%20BP.pdf. “The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies?
The remarks about economic feasibility should ... crucial to the broader history of the SDI program