1AC - Greenhill

1AC - NIB - Greenhill | 1AC - C17's - Greenhill | 1AC - NIB - Meadows | 1AC - NIB - Whitman

1AC - NIB - Greenhill

Contention One is Economics

Scenario One is Jobs

First, the economy is in a crisis – NIB enables massive investment in infrastructure that creates millions of jobs at zero cost.

Rohatyn & Slater 2012
special adviser to the chairman and CEO of Lazard, AND **former US transportation secretary (2/20/2012, Felix Rohatyn and Rodney Slater, “America needs its own infrastructure bank,” http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c61b2084-5bb3-11e1-a447-00144feabdc0.html)

America needs to invest in infrastructure. Despite signs of improvement, our economy is
AND
, and their repayment would allow the bank to be self-financing.

And, the economy is failing due to unemployment rate – NIB critical to long-term sustainable jobs

Tyson 2011
(Laura D’Andrea Tyson, chair of the Council of Economic Advisers and the head of the National Economic Council under President Clinton. currently a professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, “What it will take for President Obama and big business to bring back American jobs”, Washington Post, August 18, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-leadership/for-president-obama-and-american-business-fixing-the-us-jobs-deficit/2011/08/18/gIQAhW8ZNJ_story.html)

Nearly 14 million Americans are unemployed, another 8.4 million are working part
AND
tens of thousands of good-paying jobs in the next few years.

NIB infrastructure creates jobs and stimulates growth

Trumbull 2011
Staff writer for the Christian Science Monitor (Mark, “Is Gary Johnson right about shovel-ready jobs? 5 infrastructure challenges,”
September 23, 2011, The Christian Science Monitor, Lexis)

Republican presidential candidate Gary Johnson scored a rhetorical winner in a Republican debate Thursday by
AND
busy roads to letting states charge tolls on federal highways that need repair.

We control uniqueness – the economy is sinking into a double-dip because of unemployment and only the plan solves

Zakaria 2011
PhD in Political Science @ Harvard (6/13/2011, Fareed, “Zakaria: U.S. needs an infrastructure bank,” http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/06/13/zakaria-u-s-needs-an-infrastructure-bank/,)

President Obama has proposed a number of specific policies to tackle the jobs crisis,
AND
? That moment of bipartisanship might actually be the biggest payoff of all.

Independently collapses trade and stability

Fordham 2010
(Tina Fordham, “Investors can’t ignore the rise of geopolitical risk”, Financial Times, 7-17-2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dc71f272-7a14-11df-9871-00144feabdc0.html)

Geopolitical risk is on the rise after years of relative quiet – potentially creating further
AND
would be a very unwelcome time to see the return of geopolitical risk.”

No disads – Trade creates structural disincentives for state war

Griswold 2011
Daniel Griswold is director of the Center for Trade Policy Studies at the Cato Institute and author of Mad about Trade: Why Main Street America Should Embrace Globalization. “Free Trade and the Global Middle Class,” Hayek Society Journal Vol. 9 http://www.cato.org/pubs/articles/Hayek-Society-Journal-Griswold.pdf Accessed 6/30/12

Our more globalized world has also yielded a “peace dividend.” It may not
AND
and less likely those gains will be destroyed by civil conflict and war.

Terrorism causes global nuclear escalation – national retaliation goes global

Morgan in 2009
(Dennis Ray, Professor of Foreign Studies at Hankuk University, December, “World on fire: two scenarios of the destruction of human civilization and possible extinction of the human race” Futures, Vol 41 Issue 10, p 683-693, ScienceDirect) MG

In a remarkable website on nuclear war, Carol Moore asks the question "Is
AND
, taking a savage toll upon the environment and fragile ecosphere as well.

Scenario Two is Infrastructure Spending


Infrastructure in the United States is rapidly deteriorating, which will cause economic disaster

Strauss ’12 [Rebecca Strauss, associate director of Renewing America Publications at the Council on Foreign Relations, “Federal Transportation Infrastructure Policy,” June, online]

Concerns over the state of U.S. transportation infrastructure are higher on the
AND
country waits to start repairs, the more costly the repairs will become.

NIB solves—overcomes status quo funding failures and enables large-scale projects

McConaghy and Kessler 2011
Director of the Third Way Economic Program, AND **Vice President for Policy at Third Way (January 2011, Ryan McConaghy and Jim Kessler, “A National Infrastructure Bank,” http://www.bernardlschwartz.com/political-initiatives/Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_A_National_Infrastructure_Bank-1.pdf,

America’s economic future will hinge on how fast and well we move people, goods
AND
once-in-a-lifetime window to make enduring infrastructure investments.

Infrastructure spending is comparatively the best form of economic stimulus—NIB is the most efficient mechanism

Tyson et al. 10
(Professor @ the Haas School of Business of UC-Berkeley, PhD in Economics @ MIT, former Chair of the US President’s Council of Economic Advisers, served as the Director of the National Economic Council, Phillips, former President of Oracle, MBA @ Hampton University, member of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board, *Wolf, CEO and Chairman of UBS Americas, member of the Economic Recovery Advisor Board, BS in Economics @ Wharton [Laura, Charles, Robert, The Wall Street Journal, “The U.S. Needs and Infrastructure Bank,” January 15, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704586504574654682516084584.html]

Our nation's investment in its physical infrastructure is far below what is necessary to meet
AND
and then justify its continued funding based on its performance and investment returns.

Domestic growth prevents war.

Erik Gartzke 2011 Erik Gartzke is an associate professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. He studies institutional correlates to war and peace, with an emphasis on bargaining and rational choice theory. Gartzke holds a Ph.D.in political science from the University of Iowa and a B.A. in history from the University of San Francisco."Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound." Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound. N.p., Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012. <http://www.cato-unbound.org/2011/02/09/erik-gartzke/security-in-an-insecure-world/>.

Almost as informative as the decline in warfare has been where this decline is occurring
AND
the consolidating forces of prosperity prevail, that war becomes a durable anachronism.

The US is the underpinning of the global economy

Rahman 2011
former Ambassador and Chairman of the Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies. (Ashfaqur . “Another global recession?”. August 21. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=199461)

Several developments, especially in Europe and the US, fan this fear. First
AND
we may be in a new double dip or W-shaped recession.


Rigorous studies proves a strong correlation between decline and conflict

Royal ‘10
(director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense(Jedediah, Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives, pg 213-215)

Less intuitive is how periods of economic decline may increase the likelihood of external conflict
AND
not featured prominently in the economic-security debate and deserves more attention.

Collapse in growth makes the US uncooperative and desperate – leads to hegemonic wars

Goldstein2007
Professor of Global Politics and International Relations @ University of Pennsylvania, Avery Goldstein, “Power transitions, institutions, and China's rise in East Asia: Theoretical expectations and evidence,” Journal of Strategic Studies, Volume30, Issue 4 & 5 August 2007, pages 639 – 682

Two closely related, though distinct, theoretical arguments focus explicitly on the consequences for
AND
the period prior to the possible crossover.19 pg. 647-650

That causes U.S-China Conflict

HSU 11-[“Economic Ties Could Help Prevent US-China War” Jeremy Hsu, Innovation NewsDaily Senior Writer; 01 November 2011 05:32 PM ET;
http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/660-china-military-cyber-national-security.html]

As the U.S. faces China's economic and military rise, it also
AND
in the defense as well as economic field," the Rand analysts say.

China will escalate the conflict – perception of rational escalation ensures US gets drawn into the nuclear arms race

Glaser, PolSci Prof at Goerge Washington, ’11 (Charles, March/April, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War?” Foreign Affairs, Vol 90 Issue 2, EbscoHost)
ACCOMMODATION ON TAIWAN? THE PROSPECTS for avoiding intense military competition and war may be
AND
military efforts and a general poisoning of U.S.-Chinese relations.

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should establish a national transportation infrastructure bank.


Contention Two is Solvency


The NIB’s competitive, inter-modal, multijurisdictional approach is key—only federal action solves

Istrate and Puentes 2009
(Istrate, Emilia, senior research analyst and associate fellow with the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative specializing in transportation financing, and Puentes, Robert, Senior Fellow and Director of the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, December 2009, “Investing for Success Examining a Federal Capital Budget and a National Infrastructure Bank”, Brookings Institute)

A properly designed NIB is an attractive alternative for a new type of federal investment
AND
debt to public or private entities in leveraging private co-investment.110

Federal action key – state banks failing already

Halleman 2011
- Business graduate with analytical and program management experience across a range of transportation and infrastructure issues; Head of Communications & Media Relations at International Road Federation (Brendan, “Establishing a National Infrastructure Bank - examining precedents and potential”, October 2011, http://issuu.com/transportgooru/docs/ibank_memo_-_brenden_halleman)

The merits of establishing a National Infrastructure Bank are once again being debated in the
AND
Loan Program is currently no longer taking applications citing “state budget issues”.




1AC - C17's - Greenhill

Inherency

Congress has ceased additional procurement of C-17 strategic airlift forces now

Gertler 10, Military Aviation Specialist at CRS, (Jeremiah, April 6, “Air Force C-17 Aircraft Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress” http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/19040.pdf)

Procurement of C-17 airlift aircraft began in FY1988, and a total of
AND
and funding requirements and the U.S. military aircraft industrial base.


Plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase its investment and procurement of C-17’s

Advantage one is Heg

Strategic airlift like the C-17 is key- three reasons –

First, it enables effective power projection

Knight and Bolkcom 8, Foreign Affairs Defense and Trade Division at CRS, ‘(William an Christopher, April 15, “Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5: Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues”http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL34264.pdf)

A central tenet of U.S. national military strategy is that strategic airlift
AND
Iraq now exceeding 90%, compared with 75% during Desert Storm. 12

Second, it creates interoperability and flexible allied response

Vasilescu 11, Senior Lecturer Defense Resources at Brasov, ’11 (Cesar, “Strategic Airlift Capability: From Theory to Practice” Journal of Defense Resource Management, http://journal.dresmara.ro/issues/volume2_issue2/07_vasilescu.pdf)

Over the time, national armed forces need to remain interoperable with main partners and
AND
any one time to a given destination by available airlift” [2]

Third, airlift comparatively allows for the fastest response

CBO, ‘5(Congressional Budget Office, September, “Options for Strategic Military Transportation Systems” http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6661/09-27-strategicmobility.pdf)

The amount of time needed to move military units a given distance after a deployment
AND
did, their enormous capacity would dwarf the deliveries of the other options.

US decline is not inevitable – it is built on a strong foundation of military power projection

Beitelman 11, PhD Candidate at Dalhousie U, (David, September, “U.S. Remains the Only Superpower” http://www.policymic.com/article/show?id=1739)

Superpower. We’ve all heard the term yet few seem to remember what it means
AND
to throw words around, it’s important that we remember what they mean.

Hegemony stops great power wars and creates global stability

Kagan 3-14, Senior Fellow at Brookings, -’12 (Robert, “America has made the world freer, safer and wealthier” CNN, http://us.cnn.com/2012/03/14/opinion/kagan-world-america-made/index.html?hpt=hp_c1)

We take a lot for granted about the way the world looks today -- the
AND
what the world looked like right before the American order came into being.

Advantage two is COIN

Intervention to rebuild failed states is inevitable

Choksy & Choksy ’11, Former Director Middle East Studies at Indiana,
[Carol E. B. Choksy, Adjunct lecturer in Strategic Intelligence and Information Management at Indiana University, CEO of IRAD Strategic Consulting, Inc, PhD from U Chicago, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Professor of Central Eurasian, International, Iranian, and Islamic Studies and Former Director of The Middle Eastern Studies Program at Indiana University, Council on the Humanities at the US National Endowment for the Humanities, PhD from Harvard University, “American Intervention in Failing Countries is Necessary,” May 12th 2011]

Intervention to stabilize and reconstruct failed, failing, fragile, and even re-
AND
Third World countries do impact everyone and require attention and resolution.[9]

Current post-intervention reconstruction will fail to successfully utilize COIN

Luján ’12, Special Forces Major, [Fernando Luján, International Affairs Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations based at the Center for a New American Security, Major in the U.S. Special Forces, Served in the Pentagon's AfPak Hands program, “Beyond Groundhog Day,” Foreign Affairs; Jan/Feb 2012, Vol. 91 Issue 1, pg. 180-183]

The real danger as the United States withdraws from Afghanistan and Iraq is that U
AND
condemning U.S. soldiers to repeat the mistakes of the past.

Airlift key to effective COIN operations – boosts morale, supply routes, and weeds out insurgency basing

Owen and Mueller 7, RAND Corp, ‘(Robert and Karl, “Airlift Capabilities for Future U.S. Counterinsurgency Operation” http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG565.pdf)

U.S. armed forces are engaged in ongoing counterinsurgency (COIN) operations
AND
as effectively as military defeats. (See pp. 19–21.)

Purchasing more C-17As solves – it’s the best means of rapid transport

CBO, ‘5 (Congressional Budget Office, September, “Options for Strategic Military Transportation Systems” http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6661/09-27-strategicmobility.pdf)

Option 1A: Purchase More C-17s The first approach in CBO’s analysis would
AND
deliveries to the theater by about 350 tons per day during surge operations.

Only COIN can win future wars – the alternative is coercive tactics which ensure escalation

Kahl 07 [Colin Kahl, Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for the Middle East, Associate Professor in the Security Studies Program in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, Fellow at the Center for a New American Security, “COIN of the Realm,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2007, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63035/colin-h-kahl/coin-of-the-realm?page=show]

HEARTS AND MINDS Counterinsurgency refers to military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological
AND
directs commanders to determine how to "eliminate extremists without alienating the populace."

North Korea collapse is inevitable

Kim, ’11 [Hyung-Jin Kim, Writer for the Associated Press, “SKorea: Nuclear push could bring North's collapse,” January 17th 2011, http://www.kansascity.com/2011/01/17/2588331/skorea-nuclear-push-could-bring.html]

Impoverished North Korea could bring its own collapse if it keeps pouring scarce national resources
AND
"I am inclined to see it as an indication of their desperation."

Irregular warfare capabilities key to prevent the collapse from escalating

Maxwell ’10 [Colonel David S. Maxwell, US Army Special Forces Officer, Commander of Joint Special Operations Task Force Philippines, Faculty at the National War College, “Irregular Warfare on the Korean Peninsula,” November 30th 2010, http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/docs/11-23/ch_14.asp]

The fundamental assumption for this paper is that the threats that may emerge following collapse
AND
is the same as unconventional warfare and this breeds confusion within the alliance.

Escalation goes global

Bennett & Lind 11 [Bruce W. Bennett, Senior Defense Analyst at The RAND Corporation, Jennifer Lind, Professor of Government at Dartmouth College, “The Collapse of North Korea: Military Missions and Requirements,” International Security, Volume 36, Number 2, Fall 2011]

A government collapse in North Korea could unleash a series of catastrophes on the peninsula
AND
countries,6 and the risk of escalation to the nuclear level.7

Advantage three is Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid capability gap now – the DOD will be unable to fill the void in the near term

GAO ‘9 (The Govt Accountability Office. November 12, “Strategic Airlift Gap Has Been Addressed, but Tactical Airlift Plans Are Evolving as Key Issues Have Not Been Resolved” http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-67)

Department of Defense (DOD) used nearly 700 aircraft, as well as commercial
AND
of C-130s and C-27Js needed to perform Army missions.

Several impacts –

Military humanitarianism’s key to sustainable ground forces and credible deterrence – That also solves international relations

Stalder ’10 [Lieutenant General Keith J. Stalder Commanding General, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Pacific Tokyo American Center, “Marine General Stalder Speaks at Tokyo American Center” Feb 17, http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/p/tp-20100217-71.html//Cal-JV]

One more thing about ground forces. Their mission is not just about conflicts.
AND
the site of a disaster within hours or days, our competitors notice.

Alternative’s pre-emptive and unpredictable nuclear strikes against American assets – extinction

Schneider ‘8 [Mark. National Institute for Public Policy. “The Future of the US Nuclear Deterrent” Comparative Strategy, Vol 27 No 2. JSTOR//Cal-JV]

According to the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review, the United States must maintain a “
AND
legacy arms control and its constraints upon U.S. conventional capabilities.

Second impact’s Japan – humanitarian airlift’s vital to post-Fukushima reconstruction

DY ‘11[The Daily Yomiuri. “Japan, US Take Steps Toward Boosting Alliance” 4/11/11 ln//Cal-JV]

U.S. forces, in tandem with the Self-Defense Forces,
AND
bilateral cooperation. These discussions will take the alliance to a new level.

It’s on the brink

CIM 7-2 [The Chosun Ilbo Media Company. “Japan Resumes Work on Nuclear Processing Plant” 7/2/12 ln//Cal-JV]

The Japanese government on Tuesday authorized the construction of additional facilities to reprocess spent nuclear
AND
plutonium reprocessing facility in Rokkasho, which could be used for military purposes.

Solves warming

Moore ‘6 [Pat. Chief Scientist of Greenspirit Strategies. “Hearing of the Energy and Water Development, and Related Agencies Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee; Subject: Nuclear Energy Oversight” The FDCH, 9/13/6 ln//Cal-JV]

MR. MOORE: But the way I would kind of sum it up is
AND
for energy in the world. I think that is a true statement.

Climate change causes extinction

Sify ‘10 [Sydney newspaper citing Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, professor at University of Queensland and Director of the Global Change Institute, and John Bruno, associate professor of Marine Science at UNC (Sify News, “Could unbridled climate changes lead to human extinction?”, http://www.sify.com/news/could-unbridled-climate-changes-lead-to-human-extinction-news-international-kgtrOhdaahc.html]

The findings of the comprehensive report: 'The impact of climate change on the world's
AND
warned, according to a GCI release. These findings were published in Science

Disaster response independently solves extinction from unpredictable threats

Sid-Ahmed ‘5 (Mohamed, Al-Ahram Online, Jan 6-12, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/724/op3.htm)

The human species has never been exposed to a natural upheaval of this magnitude within
AND
now forced to live with the possibility of an imminent demise of humankind.

Humanitarian crises should filter your impact calculus – state failure makes every impact worse

Perrin ’98 (Pierre, medical doctor for the ICRC before becoming the organization’s Chief Medical Officer. He gives courses at the universities of Aix-en-Provence, in France, and Louvain, in Belgium, and at John Hopkins University in the United States, “The impact of humanitarian aid on conflict development”) http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jpcj.htm MissT

The consequences of conflict from a humanitarian point of view Malnutrition, illness, wounds
AND
Three million farmers, finally, were prevented by the conflict from farming.

Only the plan solves – more C17’s are key

Knight and Bolkcom ‘8[Knight and Bolkcom, Foreign Affairs Defense and Trade Division at CRS, ‘8 (William an Christopher, April 15, “Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5: Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues”http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL34264.pdf]

Humanitarian Relief Operations Strategic airlift has proven its value many times since World War II
AND
demonstrating the importance of strategic airlift in mitigating consequences after natural disasters. 15


1AC - NIB - Meadows

<See 1AC - NIB - Greenhill>

1AC - NIB - Whitman

Contention One is Economics

Scenario One is Jobs

First, the economy is in a crisis – NIB enables massive investment in infrastructure that creates millions of jobs at zero cost.

Rohatyn & Slater 2012
special adviser to the chairman and CEO of Lazard, AND **former US transportation secretary (2/20/2012, Felix Rohatyn and Rodney Slater, “America needs its own infrastructure bank,” http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c61b2084-5bb3-11e1-a447-00144feabdc0.html)

America needs to invest in infrastructure. Despite signs of improvement, our economy is
AND
, and their repayment would allow the bank to be self-financing.

And, the economy is failing due to unemployment rate – NIB critical to long-term sustainable jobs

Tyson 2011
(Laura D’Andrea Tyson, chair of the Council of Economic Advisers and the head of the National Economic Council under President Clinton. currently a professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, “What it will take for President Obama and big business to bring back American jobs”, Washington Post, August 18, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-leadership/for-president-obama-and-american-business-fixing-the-us-jobs-deficit/2011/08/18/gIQAhW8ZNJ_story.html)

Nearly 14 million Americans are unemployed, another 8.4 million are working part
AND
tens of thousands of good-paying jobs in the next few years.

Lack of transportation infrastructure loses the U.S. $1 Trillion of GDP a year, key to economic growth and jobs.

Hale, POLITICO correspondent, 10-31 (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
But we don’t need a report to tell us what we all know from our
AND
which understand that this is about economic growth and jobs for countless Americans.

NIB infrastructure creates jobs and stimulates growth

Trumbull 2011
Staff writer for the Christian Science Monitor (Mark, “Is Gary Johnson right about shovel-ready jobs? 5 infrastructure challenges,”
September 23, 2011, The Christian Science Monitor, Lexis)

Republican presidential candidate Gary Johnson scored a rhetorical winner in a Republican debate Thursday by
AND
busy roads to letting states charge tolls on federal highways that need repair.

We control uniqueness – the economy is sinking into a double-dip because of unemployment and only the plan solves

Zakaria 2011
PhD in Political Science @ Harvard (6/13/2011, Fareed, “Zakaria: U.S. needs an infrastructure bank,” http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/06/13/zakaria-u-s-needs-an-infrastructure-bank/,)

President Obama has proposed a number of specific policies to tackle the jobs crisis,
AND
? That moment of bipartisanship might actually be the biggest payoff of all.

Independently collapses trade and stability

Fordham 2010
(Tina Fordham, “Investors can’t ignore the rise of geopolitical risk”, Financial Times, 7-17-2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dc71f272-7a14-11df-9871-00144feabdc0.html)

Geopolitical risk is on the rise after years of relative quiet – potentially creating further
AND
would be a very unwelcome time to see the return of geopolitical risk.”

No disads – Trade creates structural disincentives for state war

Griswold 2011
Daniel Griswold is director of the Center for Trade Policy Studies at the Cato Institute and author of Mad about Trade: Why Main Street America Should Embrace Globalization. “Free Trade and the Global Middle Class,” Hayek Society Journal Vol. 9 http://www.cato.org/pubs/articles/Hayek-Society-Journal-Griswold.pdf Accessed 6/30/12

Our more globalized world has also yielded a “peace dividend.” It may not
AND
and less likely those gains will be destroyed by civil conflict and war.

Terrorism causes global nuclear escalation – national retaliation goes global

Morgan in 2009
(Dennis Ray, Professor of Foreign Studies at Hankuk University, December, “World on fire: two scenarios of the destruction of human civilization and possible extinction of the human race” Futures, Vol 41 Issue 10, p 683-693, ScienceDirect) MG

In a remarkable website on nuclear war, Carol Moore asks the question "Is
AND
, taking a savage toll upon the environment and fragile ecosphere as well.

Scenario Two is Infrastructure Spending


Infrastructure in the United States is rapidly deteriorating, which will cause economic disaster

Strauss ’12 [Rebecca Strauss, associate director of Renewing America Publications at the Council on Foreign Relations, “Federal Transportation Infrastructure Policy,” June, online]

Concerns over the state of U.S. transportation infrastructure are higher on the
AND
country waits to start repairs, the more costly the repairs will become.

After Hurricane Sandy, investment in U.S. infrastructure is even more vital

Hale, POLITICO correspondent, 10-31 (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
Not surprisingly, the first three debates of the presidential campaign focused on pocketbook issues
AND
now ranks the United States 25th in the overall quality of its infrastructure.


NIB solves—overcomes status quo funding failures and enables large-scale projects

McConaghy and Kessler 2011
Director of the Third Way Economic Program, AND **Vice President for Policy at Third Way (January 2011, Ryan McConaghy and Jim Kessler, “A National Infrastructure Bank,” http://www.bernardlschwartz.com/political-initiatives/Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_A_National_Infrastructure_Bank-1.pdf,

America’s economic future will hinge on how fast and well we move people, goods
AND
once-in-a-lifetime window to make enduring infrastructure investments.

Infrastructure spending is comparatively the best form of economic stimulus—NIB is the most efficient mechanism

Tyson et al. 10
(Professor @ the Haas School of Business of UC-Berkeley, PhD in Economics @ MIT, former Chair of the US President’s Council of Economic Advisers, served as the Director of the National Economic Council, Phillips, former President of Oracle, MBA @ Hampton University, member of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board, *Wolf, CEO and Chairman of UBS Americas, member of the Economic Recovery Advisor Board, BS in Economics @ Wharton [Laura, Charles, Robert, The Wall Street Journal, “The U.S. Needs and Infrastructure Bank,” January 15, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704586504574654682516084584.html]

Our nation's investment in its physical infrastructure is far below what is necessary to meet
AND
and then justify its continued funding based on its performance and investment returns.

Domestic growth prevents war.

Erik Gartzke 2011 Erik Gartzke is an associate professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. He studies institutional correlates to war and peace, with an emphasis on bargaining and rational choice theory. Gartzke holds a Ph.D.in political science from the University of Iowa and a B.A. in history from the University of San Francisco."Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound." Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound. N.p., Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012. <http://www.cato-unbound.org/2011/02/09/erik-gartzke/security-in-an-insecure-world/>.

Almost as informative as the decline in warfare has been where this decline is occurring
AND
the consolidating forces of prosperity prevail, that war becomes a durable anachronism.

The US is the underpinning of the global economy

Rahman 2011
former Ambassador and Chairman of the Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies. (Ashfaqur . “Another global recession?”. August 21. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=199461)

Several developments, especially in Europe and the US, fan this fear. First
AND
we may be in a new double dip or W-shaped recession.


Rigorous studies proves a strong correlation between decline and conflict

Royal ‘10
(director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense(Jedediah, Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives, pg 213-215)

Less intuitive is how periods of economic decline may increase the likelihood of external conflict
AND
not featured prominently in the economic-security debate and deserves more attention.

Collapse in growth makes the US uncooperative and desperate – leads to hegemonic wars

Goldstein2007
Professor of Global Politics and International Relations @ University of Pennsylvania, Avery Goldstein, “Power transitions, institutions, and China's rise in East Asia: Theoretical expectations and evidence,” Journal of Strategic Studies, Volume30, Issue 4 & 5 August 2007, pages 639 – 682

Two closely related, though distinct, theoretical arguments focus explicitly on the consequences for
AND
the period prior to the possible crossover.19 pg. 647-650

That causes U.S-China Conflict

HSU 11-[“Economic Ties Could Help Prevent US-China War” Jeremy Hsu, Innovation NewsDaily Senior Writer; 01 November 2011 05:32 PM ET;
http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/660-china-military-cyber-national-security.html]

As the U.S. faces China's economic and military rise, it also
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in the defense as well as economic field," the Rand analysts say.

China will escalate the conflict – perception of rational escalation ensures US gets drawn into the nuclear arms race

Glaser, PolSci Prof at Goerge Washington, ’11 (Charles, March/April, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War?” Foreign Affairs, Vol 90 Issue 2, EbscoHost)
ACCOMMODATION ON TAIWAN? THE PROSPECTS for avoiding intense military competition and war may be
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military efforts and a general poisoning of U.S.-Chinese relations.

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should establish a national transportation infrastructure bank.


Contention Two is Solvency

This is not a partisan issue, investment in transportation infrastructure, NIB specifically is key.

Hale, POLITICO correspondent, 10-31 (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
This is not a partisan issue. Support for investment in infrastructure ranges from the Chamber of Commerce to the AFL-CIO, both of which understand that this is about economic growth and jobs for countless Americans.
But the solution is about more than just “throwing money” at the problem
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a price. Which choice makes more sense? Which would you choose?

The NIB’s competitive, inter-modal, multijurisdictional approach is key—only federal action solves

Istrate and Puentes 2009
(Istrate, Emilia, senior research analyst and associate fellow with the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative specializing in transportation financing, and Puentes, Robert, Senior Fellow and Director of the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, December 2009, “Investing for Success Examining a Federal Capital Budget and a National Infrastructure Bank”, Brookings Institute)

A properly designed NIB is an attractive alternative for a new type of federal investment
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debt to public or private entities in leveraging private co-investment.110

Federal action key – state banks failing already

Halleman 2011
- Business graduate with analytical and program management experience across a range of transportation and infrastructure issues; Head of Communications & Media Relations at International Road Federation (Brendan, “Establishing a National Infrastructure Bank - examining precedents and potential”, October 2011, http://issuu.com/transportgooru/docs/ibank_memo_-_brenden_halleman)

The merits of establishing a National Infrastructure Bank are once again being debated in the
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Loan Program is currently no longer taking applications citing “state budget issues”.