Affirmative

1AC - Round 1 Bronx

1AC Topic Education


Transportation infrastructure is financed in one of two ways—through the general fund, or through increased revenue—stimulus programs finance through the general fund while failing to repair the Highway Trust Fund
ARTBA 10 – American Road and Transportation Builders Association to the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform “The Contribution of the Federal Transportation Investment Programs to Fiscal Responsibility and Deficit Reduction”, http://www.fiscalcommission.gov/sites/fiscalcommission.gov/files/documents/ARTBA.pdf)

Transportation Investment and User … motor fuels excise increase to finance an expanded transportation improvements.

And, Congress just passed a MASSIVE transportation bill—didn’t fix the Highway Trust Fund
Snyder 6/26 – became Streetsblog's Capitol Hill editor in September 2010 after covering Congress for Pacifica and public radio. She lives car-free in a transit-oriented and bike-friendly neighborhood of Washington, DC
(Tanya, “Where Did the Senate Get the Extra Money to Pay For Its Bill?”, 26 June 2012, http://dc.streetsblog.org/2012/06/26/where-did-the-senate-get-the-extra-money-to-pay-for-its-bill)

Congressional leaders announced opaquely … raising the gas tax.

1AC Deficits

The deficit is on an unsustainable path—now is the CRITICAL time to re-orient policies to stave-off a new debt tragedy
Council on Foreign Relations, 12(“U.S. Deficits and the National Debt,” pg online @ http://www.cfr.org/united-states/us-deficits-national-debt/p27400)

At some point in the not-too-… U.S. foreign policy," he says.

And, Congress has two options for the future—increased revenue generation, or deficit spending—only NEW REVENUE ensures fiscal responsibility
ARTBA 10 – (American Road and Transportation Builders Association to the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform, “The Contribution of the Federal Transportation Investment Programs to Fiscal Responsibility and Deficit Reduction,” http://www.fiscalcommission.gov/sites/fiscalcommission.gov/files/documents/ARTBA.pdf )

For more than 50 years, … budget-neutral user taxes and levies.

And, the plan is a KEY TEST for future budget debates—increasing revenue ensures a sustainable fiscal path
Washington Post 3/7(“A fiscal test for Congress,” 7 March 2012)

Over the past year, many … "the most predictable economic crisis in history"?

And, failure to rein-in deficits and establish fiscal discipline guts U.S.-China relations—they’ll be over-aggressive, gutting cooperation
Prasad 2/25 – holds the New Century Chair in International Economics. He is the Tolani Senior Professor of Trade Policy at Cornell University and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He was previously head of the Financial Studies Division and the China Division at the IMF (Eswar, “The U.S.-China Economic Relationship: Shifts and Twists in the Balance of Power,” 25 February 2012, http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2010/0225_us_china_debt_prasad.aspx )

The lopsided nature of trade … monetary system and tackling climate change.

Multiple scenarios for extinction
Wenzhong 4 – PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2/7/2004, (Zhou, “Vigorously Pushing Forward the Constructive and Cooperative Relationship Between China and the United States,” http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/zyjh/t64286.htm) Modified for Gendered Language

China's development needs a peaceful … accomplishments in China-US relations.

1AC Manufacturing

It’s on steep decline—will take the U.S. economy with it—new action is key
Nash-Hoff, 12 (“American Manufacturing Has Declined More Than Most Experts Have Thought,” pg online @ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michele-nashhoff/manufacturing-jobs_b_1382704.html)

A new report released by the Information … was actually done by foreign workers.

Three internal links -

1. Surface transportation investment – it’s CRITICAL to U.S. manufacturing—props up dependent industries
Hermann, 11 (Andrew Herrmann, P.E. SECB, F.ASCE President American Society of Civil Engineers, Impact Of Infrastructure Investment On The Manufacturing Sector, Lexis)

ASCE commends the Joint Economic … Increase federal leadership in infrastructure;

2. Investment in HIGHWAY transportation infrastructure — ensures long-term growth of steel and the manufacturing base
AISI, 12 (American Iron and Steel Institute, “AISI Public Policy Priorities – Promoting a Pro-Manufacturing Agenda,” pg online @ http://www.steel.org/en/Public%20Policy/~/media/Files/AISI/Public%20Policy/Agenda/AISI2012PublicPolicyAgenda%20_%20Final%20020212.ashx)

Transportation and Water Infrastructure Background. … reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) and research on improved gas mileage

3. Gas tax and price signals – empirics prove they spur innovation
Avent 10 (Ryan Avent, economics correspondent for The Economist, graduate from North Carolina State University and the London School of Economics, “Taxes and Innovation, again” http://www.ryanavent.com/blog/?p=2336 August 10, 2010)

Let me reiterate that my argument was not merely … that’s not the main reason to favor a carbon price.

And, a sustainable manufacturing base in the U.S. is critical to Advanced Manufacturing and R&D – solves biomanufacturing
Lind, 12 (Michael Lind is policy director of New America’s Economic Growth Program and a co-founder of the New America Foundation. Joshua Freedman is a program associate in New America’s Economic Growth Program. “Value Added: America’s Manufacturing Future,” pg online @ http://growth.newamerica.net/sites/newamerica.net/files/policydocs/Lind,%20Michael%20and%20Freedman,%20Joshua%20-%20NAF%20-%20Value%20Added%20America%27s%20Manufacturing%20Future.pdf)

Manufacturing, R&D and the U.S. Innovation Ecosystem … percent in 2007 to 50 percent by 2020.33

Independently, technology produced advanced R&D will make war IMPOSSIBLE
Paone, 9 (Chuck, 66th Air Base Wing Public Affairs for the US Air Force, 8-10-09, “Technology convergence could prevent war, futurist says,” http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123162500)

The convergence of"exponentially advancing … he says, even if people don't know it.

Biomanufacturing solves bioterror
a. Biotech
Morgan et al 03 (Sarah Morgan East Texas Baptist University, Silverio Colon, Arizona State University Department of Bioengineering College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Judith A. Ruffner and John A. Emerson Organic Materials Department, Ramona L. Myers Nuclear Safety Assessment Department; “Biomanufacturing: A State of the Technology Review “September 2003, http://www.che.ncsu.edu/academics/concentrations/documents/Biomanufacturing-AStateofTechRev.pdf)

Perhaps the most unique and advantageous … contribute to any one of these fields.

b. Pharmaceuticals – the plan bolsters them
Swezey 11 (Devon Swezey, Project Director for Breakthrough Institute where he works as an energy and climate policy analyst; “Manufacturing Growth Advanced Manufacturing and the Future of the American Economy,” http://thebreakthrough.org/blog/BTI_Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_Manufacturing_Growth_.pdf)

New manufacturing thrives on … for product development and manufacturing.

And, those solve bioterror
Thompson 02 (Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary of Health and Human Services; "CDC, Pharmaceutical Companies Counter Bioterror Threat," 4/11/2002, http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/p/tp-se1295.html)

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and … is our best weapon against this invisible enemy."

And, new gene synthesis technology makes bioterrorism uniquely likely and deadly
MSNBC 11(“Clinton warns of bioweapon threat from gene tech,” 12/7/11, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/45584359/ns/technology_and_science-security/#.TuaTq7JomzZ)

GENEVA — New gene assembly … it is too complicated to monitor every lab's activities.

And, an attack would go global – no generic defense
Posner 05 (Richard Posner, professor of law and economics at the University of Chicago; Skeptic, Winter, “Catastrophe”, proquest)

The smallpox virus is stable in … bioweapons without anyone noticing.

And, It’s an existential threat
Matheny 07 - MPH from Johns Hopkins, PhD Candidate @ Johns Hopkins (Jason, research associate with the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University, where his work focuses on technology forecasting and risk assessment - particularly of global catastrophic risks and existential risks.[1] He previously worked for the World Bank, the Center for Biosecurity, the Center for Global Development, and on national security projects for the US government. He is a Sommer Scholar and PhD candidate in Applied Economics at Johns Hopkins University. He holds an MPH from Johns Hopkins, an MBA from Duke University, and a BA from the University of Chicago, Department of Health Policy and Management, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, “Reducing the Risk of Human Extinction,” http://www.physics.harvard.edu/~wilson/pmpmta/Mahoney_extinction.pdf)

Of current extinction risks, the … do not seem to be worth the risks.

And, it causes US nuclear lashout
Conley, 03 (Chief of the Systems Analysis Branch, Directorate of Requirements, http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj03/spr03/conley.html)

The number of American casualties … promises had been made.”

1AC Plan

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should increase its investment in surface transportation infrastructure by phasing in a price floor and variable tax on gasoline.

1AC Solvency

The plan solves— increases revenue for transportation infrastructure
Abelkop, 9 – J.D., University of Iowa College of Law, 2010; B.A., Wake Forest University, PhD Student at the University of Indiana, (Adam, “Why the Government Should Drink Your Milkshake: The Case for Restructuring the Federal Gas Tax,” The Journal of Corporation Law Winter, 2009, 35 Iowa J. Corp. L. 393, Lexis)

Congress should enact legislation … should be allocated as the government deems appropriate.

Increased gas taxes are more effective than the squo
NYT, 6 (“Raise the Gasoline Tax? Funny, It Doesn’t Sound Republican” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/08/business/yourmoney/08view.html)

FOR nearly two decades, Alan Greenspan … check at the White House gates, where they can be reclaimed upon return to private life.

Our model of debate is best – simulating governmental action is best for decisionmaking
Hanghoj 8 (Thorkild Hanghøj, Copenhagen, PhD, author affiliated with Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials; “PLAYFUL KNOWLEDGE An Explorative Study of Educational Gaming,” 2008, http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf

Joas’ re-interpretation of Dewey’s pragmatism … and personal qualities as well.

Ag impact - broken round 4 Bronx



Read on the manu adv after Avent 10:

And, the manufacturing industry is key to agricultural technology innovation and precision farming

Lind and Freeman 12 (Michael Lind, policy director of New America’s Economic Growth Program and a co-founder of the New America Foundation, Joshua Freedman, program associate in New America’s Economic Growth Program, “Value Added: America’s Manufacturing Future,” New America Foundation, April 2012, http://growth.newamerica.net/sites/newamerica.net/files/policydocs/Lind,%20Michael%20and%20Freedman,%20Joshua%20-%20NAF%20-%20Value%20Added%20America%27s%20Manufacturing%20Future.pdf)



Advanced manufacturing is not limited to new, emerging … farm equipment brochure looks like a consumer electronics guide.



And, agricultural technology innovation solves extinction

Trewavas 02 (Anthony, Professor at the Institute of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Edinburgh, “GM IS the Best Option We Have”,http://www.agbioworld.org/biotech-info/articles/biotech-art/best_option.html)



In 535 A.D. a volcano near the present Krakatoa … technological advance may be the only buffer between us and annihilation.



And, efficient and precise farming solves extinction

Lugar 04 (Richard, a US Senator from Indiana, is Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and a member and former chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee, “calls for a new green revolution to combat global warming and reduce world instability,” http://www.unep.org/OurPlanet/imgversn/143/lugar.html)



In a world confronted by global terrorism, turmoil in the Middle East, burgeoning … humanitarian role in the survival of billions of people and the health of our planet.

Rest of the adv was the same except for Swezey & Thompson (which weren't read) and the bioterror impact, which was changed to this:

And, extinction
Ochs, 02 (MA in Natural Resource Management at Rutgers, (Richard, “Biological Weapons Must be Abolished Immediately,” 6-9-2002, http://www.freefromterror.net/other_articles/abolish.html)

Of all the weapons of mass destruction, the genetically engineered … would extinguish humanity, then patriotism is the highest of all crimes.


Negative

Theory

Disclosure theory

They didn’t disclose – that’s a voting issue – destroys the negative’s ability to prepare for the debate which is key to more effective policy education

An open model creates the best politics and arguments
Torvalds and Diamond ‘1 [Linus (Creator of Linux) and David (freelance contributor to the New York Times and Business Week); “Why Open Source Makes Sense”; Educause Review; November/December; p. 71-2 //nick]

It's the best illustration of the limitless benefits to be ... esteem of their peers. That's got to be highly motivating.

T / FW

Framework


“Resolved” before a colon reflects a legislative forum
Army Officer School ‘04
(5-12, “# 12, Punctuation – The Colon and Semicolon”, http://usawocc.army.mil/IMI/wg12.htm)

The colon introduces the following: … petition the mayor.

“USFG should” means the debate is solely about a policy established by governmental means
Ericson ‘03
(Jon M., Dean Emeritus of the College of Liberal Arts – California Polytechnic U., et al., The Debater’s Guide, Third Edition, p. 4)

The Proposition of Policy: … action that you propose.

You Should Vote Neg—

Second, Dialogue – Endless creativity is useless in a MONOLOGUE – engaging in a predictable and preparation-intensive DIALOGUE is key to deeper understanding of ANY ISSUE
Gerald Graff, University of English& Education, University of Illinois at Chicago, Clueless in Academe: How Schooling Obscures The Life of The Mind, ‘3, p. 11-12

But an even more important … obscure the life of the mind.

Dialogue is the biggest impact—the process of discussion precedes any truth claim by magnifying the benefits of any discussion
Morson 4
http://www.flt.uae.ac.ma/elhirech/baktine/0521831059.pdf#page=331
Northwestern Professor, Prof. Morson's work ranges over a variety of areas: literary theory (especially narrative); the history of ideas, both Russian and European; a variety of literary genres (especially satire, utopia, and the novel); and his favorite writers -- Chekhov, Gogol, and, above all, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy. He is especially interested in the relation of literature to philosophy.

A belief in truly dialogic … keep the conversation going.

Dialogue is critical to affirming any value—shutting down deliberation devolves into totalitarianism and reinscribes oppression
Morson 4
http://www.flt.uae.ac.ma/elhirech/baktine/0521831059.pdf#page=331
Northwestern Professor, Prof. Morson's work ranges over a variety of areas: literary theory (especially narrative); the history of ideas, both Russian and European; a variety of literary genres (especially satire, utopia, and the novel); and his favorite writers -- Chekhov, Gogol, and, above all, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy. He is especially interested in the relation of literature to philosophy.

Bakhtin viewed the whole … spiral of intolerance.

Third, decisionmaking –

Linking the ballot to a should question in combination with USFG simulation teaches the skills to organize pragmatic consequences and philosophical values into a course of action
Hanghoj 8
http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf
Thorkild Hanghøj, Copenhagen, 2008
Since this PhD project began in 2004, the present author has been affiliated with DREAM (Danish
Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials), which is located at the Institute of
Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark. Research visits have
taken place at the Centre for Learning, Knowledge, and Interactive Technologies (L-KIT), the
Institute of Education at the University of Bristol and the institute formerly known as Learning Lab
Denmark at the School of Education, University of Aarhus, where I currently work as an assistant
professor.

Joas’ re-interpretation of Dewey’s … of problem-based scenarios.

Decisionmaking is a trump impact—it improves all aspects of life regardless of its specific goals
Shulman, president emeritus – Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, ‘9
(Lee S, Education and a Civil Society: Teaching Evidence-Based Decision Making, p. ix-x)

These are the kinds of questions … role in the lives of citizens.

Fourth is agency –

Debate roleplay specifically activates agency
Hanghoj 8
http://static.sdu.dk/mediafiles/Files/Information_til/Studerende_ved_SDU/Din_uddannelse/phd_hum/afhandlinger/2009/ThorkilHanghoej.pdf
Thorkild Hanghøj, Copenhagen, 2008
Since this PhD project began in 2004, the present author has been affiliated with DREAM (Danish
Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials), which is located at the Institute of
Literature, Media and Cultural Studies at the University of Southern Denmark. Research visits have
taken place at the Centre for Learning, Knowledge, and Interactive Technologies (L-KIT), the
Institute of Education at the University of Bristol and the institute formerly known as Learning Lab
Denmark at the School of Education, University of Aarhus, where I currently work as an assistant
professor.

Thus, debate games require … in a democratic society

In the US (vs. space elevator)


A. Interpretation—“in” means inclusion within a place—“investment” must be within the United States
Random House 12 (Unabridged Dictionary, “in”, http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/in?s=t)

in   [in] Show IPA preposition, adverb, adjective, noun ….

And, “United States” means all of the states
EPA, 6 (EPA, US Environmental Protection Agency Terminology Reference System, 2-1-2006, http://iaspub.epa.gov/trs/trs_proc_qry.alphabet?p_term_nm=U)

United States When used in the … Commercial Chemical Control Rules Term Detail

B. Violation: the space elevator will be anchored in the ocean near the equator – NOT in the US
Kellum 6 (Mervyn Kellum, astrophysicist studying the space elevator, quoted in CBS News; “Space Elevator: Next floor, Mars,” October 2006, http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/space/spaceelevator.html)

And Mervyn Kellum. He's studying the business … straight as it orbits in synch with the Earth's rotation

CP

Privatization CP


The United States federal government should:

-- devolve all control over [ ] to state and local governments, including returning any current federal funding spent on [ ] to the states.

-- eliminate any barriers to greater private sector investment in [ ].

--grant states permission to transfer ownership of [ ] to the private sector.

Solves the case – the CP encourages state experimentation with full privatization – this raises more capital than the plan and stimulates the economy without federal funding
Edwards, 11 - director of tax policy studies at Cato. Before joining Cato, Edwards was a senior economist on the congressional Joint Economic Committee, a manager with PricewaterhouseCoopers, and an economist with the Tax Foundation (Chris, “Federal Infrastructure Investment” Congressional Testimony, 11/16, http://www.cato.org/publications/congressional-testimony/federal-infrastructure-investment)

Decentralizing Infrastructure Financing The U.S. economy needs infrastructure, … very favorable results.31

Public investment is manipulated by project managers who cook the data to win project approval – exaggerates aff benefits and causes massive cost overruns
Flyvbjerg, 10 - Professor of Major Programme Management at Oxford University's Saïd Business School and is Founding Director of the University's BT Centre for Major Programme Management. He was previously Professor of Planning at Aalborg University, Denmark and Chair of Infrastructure Policy and Planning at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands (Bent, “Survival of the unfittest: why the worst infrastructure gets built—and what we can do about it,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Volume 25, Number 3, 2009, pp.344–367, Oxford Journals Online)

This situation may need some explication, because it may … common with major infrastructure projects.

Qatar CP


Text: The United States federal government should ask Qatar to

The counterplan solves the case – channels external investment toward domestic transportation projects
Rediker, 8 (Heidi Rediker, Chief Economist State Department of the United States; “Financing America’s Infrastructure: Putting Global Capital To Work,” http://newamerica.net/files/Financing_America_Infrastructure.PDF)

What is missing is a mechanism for channeling these enormous … requires that we consider the use of financial tools to achieve our public policy goals.

The counterplan is predictable and solves Qatari soft power — the impact is Fatah/Hamas peace
O’Sullivan, 11 (Meghan L. O’Sullivan, professor at Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government, former deputy national security adviser, and Bloomberg columnist; “Tiny Qatar’s Big Plans May Change Mideast: Meghan L. O’Sullivan”, Bloomberg, 9/3/11, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-04/tiny-qatar-s-big-plans-may-change-u-s-mideast-policy-meghan-o-sullivan.html)

Qatar, a country of fewer than 2 million people set on a peninsula smaller than … woven, and the payoff goes well beyond corporate profits.

Solves a Syrian strike on Israel
Petenngill, 11
(MA-Modern History-University of St. Andrews and Research Fellow-Henry Jackson Society, August, http://www.standpointmag.co.uk/online-only-august11-the-perennial-palestinian-pawns-julia-pettengill-arab-spring-palestine)

If the deal fails, this gives Hamas and their Syrian patrons a pretext … clear threat to the Israeli government.

Extinction
Joshi 2k (Sharad Joshi, Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for Non-Proliferation, “Israel’s Nuclear Policy: A Cost-Benefit Analysis”, Strategic Analysis: A Monthly Journal of the IDSA, Vol. XXII, No 12. 2000, ebsco)

Arab WMD Development A common argument is that the Israeli nuclear capability … intolerable strain on Israel’s freedom of military movement and civilian morale.

DA

Fiscal Cliff


Obama has the influence to prevail in fiscal cliff negotiations now - political capital is key
Sprung, 9/21
(Andrew Sprung is a political commentator & media consultant. He is the CEO of Sprung PR and hold a PhD from the University of Rochestor, “Ezra Klein's unconvincing theory that Obama misunderstands (or misrepresents) "change," http://xpostfactoid.blogspot.com/2012/09/ezra-kleins-unconvincing-theory-that.html)

In my view, Klein is viewing this question too narrowly. Obama is well aware … , or control health-care choices that women should make for themselves.

New transportation spending unpopular– too large and expensive
Puentes 10 (Robert, Senior Fellow at the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings, “Moving Past Gridlock: A Proposal for a Two-Year Transportation Law”, December 2010, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media /research/files/blogs /2011/4/18%20transportation%20puentes/1214_transportation_puentes.pdf)// KB

Yet the nation’s surface transportation law is caught in … infrastructure improvements and thwarting employment and economic recovery efforts.

Presidential leadership is key to a compromise – the alternative is the collapse of hegemony, a double-dip recession, and war in the Middle East
Hutchison, U.S. Senator from the great state of Texas, 9/21/2012
(Kay Bailey, “A Looming Threat to National Security,” States News Service, Lexis)

Despite warnings of the dire consequences, America is teetering … harsh tax increases that could stall economic growth and punish working families.

Middle East goes nuclear
James A. Russell, Senior Lecturer, National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, ‘9 (Spring) “Strategic Stability Reconsidered: Prospects for Escalation and Nuclear War in the Middle East” IFRI, Proliferation Papers, #26, http://www.ifri.org/downloads/PP26_Russell_2009.pdf

Strategic stability in the region is thus undermined by various factors … the region, with substantial risk for the entire world.

Nanotech bad


That destroys the biosphere, causes an arms race, and makes extinction inevitable
Bostrom 1 (Nick Bostrom, faculty of philosophy at Oxford University; “Existential Risk,” 2001, http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html)

In a mature form, molecular nanotechnology will enable the construction … between the US and the USSR was predicted but occurred nevertheless.

Space elevator link


Space elevator development necessitates nanotech
Solomon 11 (Lewis D. Solomon, Van Vleck Research Professor of Law at the George Washington University Law School; “The Privatization of Space Exploration: Business, Technology, Law and Policy,” 12/16/2011, pg. 119)

Nanotechnology provides the technological key to the … envisioned, would be three feet wide and thinner than a sheet of paper.

Sacred Cow


Sacred cows are being cut now
Sanchez, 11 (Humberto Sanchez, correspondent for the National Journal; “House GOP Proposes Cuts to Scores of Sacred Cows”, The National Journal, 2/9/2011, http://www.nationaljournal.com/house-gop-proposes-cuts-to-scores-of-sacred-cows-20110209)

The House Appropriations Committee proposed today to cut funding for … $74 million less than the president requested for it.

The plan’s untouchable fiat designates it as an off-budget project — this has a snowball effect and ensures every pet project gets funded
Boskin, 96 (Michael Boskin, senior fellow at the Hoover Institute; Congressional Record, 142 Con Rec H, 4/17/1996, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-1996-04-17/html/CREC-1996-04-17-pt1-PgH3497-3.htm)

I believe it is likely that moving one popular … quickly render sensible tax and budget policy impossible.

Enables funding of weather modification
Bastach 8/3 (Michael Bastach, writer for the Daily Caller News Foundation; “Senators want to spend tax dollars to control the weather,” 8/3/2012, http://dailycaller.com/2012/08/03/senators-want-to-spend-tax-dollars-to-control-the-weather)

If Texas Republican Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison and Colorado … senator’s support for efforts to alter weather patterns.

Extinction
Chossudovsky 9/28 (Michel Chossudovsky, award-winning author, Professor of Economics, Founder and Director of the Centre for Research on Globalization; ‘The Ultimate Weapon of Mass Destruction: “Owning the Weather” for Military Use,” 9/28/2012, http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-ultimate-weapon-of-mass-destruction-owning-the-weather-for-military-use-2)

The term “environmental modification techniques” refers to any … nation” without the deployment of troops and military hardware.

K

Cap / ID politics


Identity politics become coopted by the elites—ruling classes use notions of culture to reinforce their place in the social hierarchy
Dunk, teaches in the Department of Sociology at Lakehead University, March 2002
[Thomas, Hunting and the Politics of Identity in Ontario, Capitalism, Nature, Socialism Vol 13 Iss 1, Proquest]

The arguments employed by the OFAH and the NOTO exemplify … about the linkages between the uses of nature, cultural traditions, and rights.

Resisting this reliance on economic evaluation is the ultimate ethical responsibility – the current social order guarantees social exclusion on a global scale – turns the case
Zizek and Daly 4 (Slavoj and Glyn, Conversations with Zizek page 14-16)

For Zizek it is imperative that we cut through this Gordian knot of postmodern … the status of the abject Other to that of a ‘glitch’ in an otherwise sound matrix.

Introna


Their framing of existence in terms of human value creates the world as standing reserve and legitimizes extinction – all forms of valuation carry the possibility of devaluation – rather than accepting hierarchies, we ask you to embrace an impossible ethic of infinite hospitality
Introna 9 – Professor of Organization, Technology and Ethics at Lancaster University
(Lucas, “Ethics and the Speaking of Things,” Theory, Culture & Society 2009 vol 26 no 4, 25-46, dml)

In the ethics of hybrids our ethical relationship with things is … the overcoming of ethics, towards an ethos of letting-be of all beings.

Security - Asteroids & Enviro


Environmental apocalypticism causes eco-authoritarianism and mass violence against those deemed environmental threats – also causes political apathy which turns case
Buell 3 (Frederick Buell, cultural critic on the environmental crisis and a Professor of English at Queens College and the author of five books; “From Apocalypse To Way of Life,” pg. 185-186)

Looked at critically then, crisis discourse thus suffers … of nature, temptation increased to refute it, or give up, or even cut off ties to clearly terminal “nature.”

That causes mass wars
Brzoska 8 (Michael Brzoska, Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg; “The securitization of climate change and the power of conceptions of security,” Paper prepared for the International Studies Association Convention, 2008)

In the literature on securitization it is implied that … military preparedness against the other major powers, thus leading to arms races.

Independently, doomsday asteroids scenarios justify imperialism through narratives of salvation
Mellor 07 (Felicity Mellor, lecturer in science communication at Imperial College, August 2007, “Colliding Worlds: Asteroid Research and the Legitimization of War in Space,” published in Social Studies of Science Volume 37 Issue 4, page 511)

Despite their disagreements over technical details and … excavation of a new Central American canal to join the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

The alternative is to vote neg to reject the dominant framing of security – this is a prerequisite to policymaking
Bruce and Cheeseman 96 (Robert, Associate Professor in Social Science – Curtin University and Graeme Cheeseman, Senior Lecturer – University of New South Wales, Discourses of Danger and Dread Frontiers, p. 5-9)

This goal is pursued in ways which are still … intellectual debates, or resistant to them, or choose not to understand them, and why?

Case turns

Bioptx impacts = powerlessness


turn – people can assert agency in the face of state control – ignoring this disempowers the alt
Cesare Casarino, professor of cultural studies and comparative literature at the University of Minnesota AND Antonio Negri, author of numerous volumes of philosophy and political theory. “It’s a Powerful Life: A Conversation on Contemporary Philosophy” Cultural Critique 57. 2004

AN: I believe Giorgio is writing a sequel to Homo Sacer, and … continuously try to subtract or neutralize our resistance. [End Page 174]

CO2 Good

Agricultural crises are creating global food shortages – that kills a billion people – increased CO2 is key to solve
Idso’s, 11 [Sherwood PhD and former research physicist for the Department of Agriculture, Keith PhD Botany, Craig PhD Geography, 6/6/2011, “Meeting the Food Needs of a Growing World Population”, http://www.co2science.org/articles/V14/N27/EDIT.php] DHirsch

Parry and Hawkesford (2010) introduce their study of the global problem by noting that "food production … situation is deteriorating," with more people "hungrier now than at the start of the millennium."

Difference turn



Their continued usage of racial binaries makes racism more concrete because they are still measuring blackness as compared to a white face—this reinforces racial difference and makes people think that there is a concrete difference between themselves, making racial conflict inevitable.

Deleuze and Guattari 80 Gilles Deleuze, professor of philosophy at the University of Paris VIII, A Thousand Plateaus, and Felix Guattari, radical psychoanalyst, A Thousand Plateaus, 1980, pg. 177-178



Under the second aspect, the abstract machine of faciality assumes a role … at a given degree of divergence). Its cruelty is equaled only by its incompetence and naivete.

Round reports

Bronx

RD 1 vs Agape EY (Bridges)


Disclosure theory
Sacred cow DA
Introna K (2NR)
Fiscal cliff DA
Qatar CP
-- Case defense (econ & urban sprawl)

RD 3 vs Monticello MP (Space Elevator)


Privatization CP w/ data cooking
T - in the US
Sacred cow DA
Security K (2NR)
-- CO2 Good
-- Nanotech bad DA (read on solvency)

RD 6 vs University PA (Rosa Parks Genealogy)


Disclosure theory (2NR)
Framework (2NR)
Cap / ID politics K
-- Bioptx impacts = powerlessness
-- Difference turn


This page has been updated 10 times since it was created on 10/20/2012. It was last updated on 10/20/2012 by mstekl.