2A: Misty Tippets - misty.tippets9@gmail.com
2N: Brock Hanson - Brock.s.Hanson@gmail.com

Questions, comments, concerns etc, email misty.tippets9@gmail.com

Aff


Aff | 1AC - C17's - Greenhill | 1AC - NIB - Meadows | 1AC - NIB - Whitman | 1AC - Ableism- Silver & Black | | Neg | Strats

1AC - NIB - Greenhill

Adv - Econ

Contention One is Economics
Scenario One is Jobs
First, the economy is in a crisis – NIB enables massive investment in infrastructure that creates millions of jobs at zero cost.
Rohatyn & Slater 2012
special adviser to the chairman and CEO of Lazard, AND former US transportation secretary (2/20/2012, Felix Rohatyn and Rodney Slater, “America needs its own infrastructure bank,” http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c61b2084-5bb3-11e1-a447-00144feabdc0.html)

America needs to invest in infrastructure. Despite signs of improvement, our economy is
AND
, and their repayment would allow the bank to be self-financing.

And, the economy is failing due to unemployment rate – NIB critical to long-term sustainable jobs
Tyson 2011
(Laura D’Andrea Tyson, chair of the Council of Economic Advisers and the head of the National Economic Council under President Clinton. currently a professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, “What it will take for President Obama and big business to bring back American jobs”, Washington Post, August 18, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-leadership/for-president-obama-and-american-business-fixing-the-us-jobs-deficit/2011/08/18/gIQAhW8ZNJ_story.html)

Nearly 14 million Americans are unemployed, another 8.4 million are working part
AND
tens of thousands of good-paying jobs in the next few years.

NIB infrastructure creates jobs and stimulates growth
Trumbull 2011
Staff writer for the Christian Science Monitor (Mark, “Is Gary Johnson right about shovel-ready jobs? 5 infrastructure challenges,”
September 23, 2011, The Christian Science Monitor, Lexis)

Republican presidential candidate Gary Johnson scored a rhetorical winner in a Republican debate Thursday by
AND
busy roads to letting states charge tolls on federal highways that need repair.

We control uniqueness – the economy is sinking into a double-dip because of unemployment and only the plan solves
Zakaria 2011
PhD in Political Science @ Harvard (6/13/2011, Fareed, “Zakaria: U.S. needs an infrastructure bank,” http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/06/13/zakaria-u-s-needs-an-infrastructure-bank/,)

President Obama has proposed a number of specific policies to tackle the jobs crisis,
AND
? That moment of bipartisanship might actually be the biggest payoff of all.

Independently collapses trade and stability
Fordham 2010
(Tina Fordham, “Investors can’t ignore the rise of geopolitical risk”, Financial Times, 7-17-2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dc71f272-7a14-11df-9871-00144feabdc0.html)

Geopolitical risk is on the rise after years of relative quiet – potentially creating further
AND
would be a very unwelcome time to see the return of geopolitical risk.”

No disads – Trade creates structural disincentives for state war
Griswold 2011
Daniel Griswold is director of the Center for Trade Policy Studies at the Cato Institute and author of Mad about Trade: Why Main Street America Should Embrace Globalization. “Free Trade and the Global Middle Class,” Hayek Society Journal Vol. 9 http://www.cato.org/pubs/articles/Hayek-Society-Journal-Griswold.pdf Accessed 6/30/12

Our more globalized world has also yielded a “peace dividend.” It may not
AND
and less likely those gains will be destroyed by civil conflict and war.

Terrorism causes global nuclear escalation – national retaliation goes global
Morgan in 2009
(Dennis Ray, Professor of Foreign Studies at Hankuk University, December, “World on fire: two scenarios of the destruction of human civilization and possible extinction of the human race” Futures, Vol 41 Issue 10, p 683-693, ScienceDirect) MG

In a remarkable website on nuclear war, Carol Moore asks the question "Is
AND
, taking a savage toll upon the environment and fragile ecosphere as well.

Scenario Two is Infrastructure Spending

Infrastructure in the United States is rapidly deteriorating, which will cause economic disaster
Strauss ’12 [Rebecca Strauss, associate director of Renewing America Publications at the Council on Foreign Relations, “Federal Transportation Infrastructure Policy,” June, online]

Concerns over the state of U.S. transportation infrastructure are higher on the
AND
country waits to start repairs, the more costly the repairs will become.

NIB solves—overcomes status quo funding failures and enables large-scale projects
McConaghy and Kessler 2011
Director of the Third Way Economic Program, AND Vice President for Policy at Third Way (January 2011, Ryan McConaghy and Jim Kessler, “A National Infrastructure Bank,” http://www.bernardlschwartz.com/political-initiatives/Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_A_National_Infrastructure_Bank-1.pdf,

America’s economic future will hinge on how fast and well we move people, goods
AND
once-in-a-lifetime window to make enduring infrastructure investments.

Infrastructure spending is comparatively the best form of economic stimulus—NIB is the most efficient mechanism
Tyson et al. 10
(Professor @ the Haas School of Business of UC-Berkeley, PhD in Economics @ MIT, former Chair of the US President’s Council of Economic Advisers, served as the Director of the National Economic Council, Phillips, former President of Oracle, MBA @ Hampton University, member of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board, *Wolf, CEO and Chairman of UBS Americas, member of the Economic Recovery Advisor Board, BS in Economics @ Wharton [Laura, Charles, Robert, The Wall Street Journal, “The U.S. Needs and Infrastructure Bank,” January 15, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704586504574654682516084584.html]

Our nation's investment in its physical infrastructure is far below what is necessary to meet
AND
and then justify its continued funding based on its performance and investment returns.

Domestic growth prevents war.
Erik Gartzke 2011 Erik Gartzke is an associate professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. He studies institutional correlates to war and peace, with an emphasis on bargaining and rational choice theory. Gartzke holds a Ph.D.in political science from the University of Iowa and a B.A. in history from the University of San Francisco."Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound." Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound. N.p., Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012. <http://www.cato-unbound.org/2011/02/09/erik-gartzke/security-in-an-insecure-world/>.

Almost as informative as the decline in warfare has been where this decline is occurring
AND
the consolidating forces of prosperity prevail, that war becomes a durable anachronism.

The US is the underpinning of the global economy
Rahman 2011
former Ambassador and Chairman of the Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies. (Ashfaqur . “Another global recession?”. August 21. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=199461)

Several developments, especially in Europe and the US, fan this fear. First
AND
we may be in a new double dip or W-shaped recession.


Rigorous studies proves a strong correlation between decline and conflict
Royal ‘10
(director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense(Jedediah, Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives, pg 213-215)

Less intuitive is how periods of economic decline may increase the likelihood of external conflict
AND
not featured prominently in the economic-security debate and deserves more attention.

Collapse in growth makes the US uncooperative and desperate – leads to hegemonic wars
Goldstein 2007
Professor of Global Politics and International Relations @ University of Pennsylvania, Avery Goldstein, “Power transitions, institutions, and China's rise in East Asia: Theoretical expectations and evidence,” Journal of Strategic Studies, Volume30, Issue 4 & 5 August 2007, pages 639 – 682

Two closely related, though distinct, theoretical arguments focus explicitly on the consequences for
AND
the period prior to the possible crossover.19 pg. 647-650

That causes U.S-China Conflict
HSU 11-[“Economic Ties Could Help Prevent US-China War” Jeremy Hsu, Innovation NewsDaily Senior Writer; 01 November 2011 05:32 PM ET;
http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/660-china-military-cyber-national-security.html]

As the U.S. faces China's economic and military rise, it also
AND
in the defense as well as economic field," the Rand analysts say.

China will escalate the conflict – perception of rational escalation ensures US gets drawn into the nuclear arms race
Glaser ’11 , PolSci Prof at Goerge Washington, (Charles, March/April, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War?” Foreign Affairs, Vol 90 Issue 2, EbscoHost)
ACCOMMODATION ON TAIWAN? THE PROSPECTS for avoiding intense military competition and war may be
AND
military efforts and a general poisoning of U.S.-Chinese relations.

Plan

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should establish a national transportation infrastructure bank.

Solvency

Contention Two is Solvency

The NIB’s competitive, inter-modal, multijurisdictional approach is key—only federal action solves
Istrate and Puentes 2009
(Istrate, Emilia, senior research analyst and associate fellow with the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative specializing in transportation financing, and Puentes, Robert, Senior Fellow and Director of the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, December 2009, “Investing for Success Examining a Federal Capital Budget and a National Infrastructure Bank”, Brookings Institute)

A properly designed NIB is an attractive alternative for a new type of federal investment
AND
debt to public or private entities in leveraging private co-investment.110

Federal action key – state banks failing already
Halleman 2011
- Business graduate with analytical and program management experience across a range of transportation and infrastructure issues; Head of Communications & Media Relations at International Road Federation (Brendan, “Establishing a National Infrastructure Bank - examining precedents and potential”, October 2011, http://issuu.com/transportgooru/docs/ibank_memo_-_brenden_halleman)

The merits of establishing a National Infrastructure Bank are once again being debated in the
AND
Loan Program is currently no longer taking applications citing “state budget issues”.




1AC - C17's - Greenhill

Inherency

Congress has ceased additional procurement of C-17 strategic airlift forces now
Gertler 10, Military Aviation Specialist at CRS, (Jeremiah, April 6, “Air Force C-17 Aircraft Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress” http://www.policyarchive.org/handle/10207/bitstreams/19040.pdf)

Procurement of C-17 airlift aircraft began in FY1988, and a total of
AND
and funding requirements and the U.S. military aircraft industrial base.


Plan

The United States federal government should substantially increase its investment and procurement of C-17’s

Adv - HegAdvantage one is Heg
Strategic airlift like the C-17 is key- three reasons –
First, it enables effective power projection
Knight and Bolkcom 8, Foreign Affairs Defense and Trade Division at CRS, ‘(William an Christopher, April 15, “Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5: Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues”http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL34264.pdf)

A central tenet of U.S. national military strategy is that strategic airlift
AND
Iraq now exceeding 90%, compared with 75% during Desert Storm. 12

Second, it creates interoperability and flexible allied response
Vasilescu 11, Senior Lecturer Defense Resources at Brasov, ’11 (Cesar, “Strategic Airlift Capability: From Theory to Practice” Journal of Defense Resource Management, http://journal.dresmara.ro/issues/volume2_issue2/07_vasilescu.pdf)

Over the time, national armed forces need to remain interoperable with main partners and
AND
any one time to a given destination by available airlift” [2]
Third, airlift comparatively allows for the fastest response
CBO, ‘5(Congressional Budget Office, September, “Options for Strategic Military Transportation Systems” http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6661/09-27-strategicmobility.pdf)

The amount of time needed to move military units a given distance after a deployment
AND
did, their enormous capacity would dwarf the deliveries of the other options.

US decline is not inevitable – it is built on a strong foundation of military power projection
Beitelman 11, PhD Candidate at Dalhousie U, (David, September, “U.S. Remains the Only Superpower” http://www.policymic.com/article/show?id=1739)

Superpower. We’ve all heard the term yet few seem to remember what it means
AND
to throw words around, it’s important that we remember what they mean.

Hegemony stops great power wars and creates global stability
Kagan 3-14, Senior Fellow at Brookings, -’12 (Robert, “America has made the world freer, safer and wealthier” CNN, http://us.cnn.com/2012/03/14/opinion/kagan-world-america-made/index.html?hpt=hp_c1)

We take a lot for granted about the way the world looks today -- the
AND
what the world looked like right before the American order came into being.

Adv - Coin

Advantage two is COIN

Intervention to rebuild failed states is inevitable
Choksy & Choksy ’11, Former Director Middle East Studies at Indiana,
[Carol E. B. Choksy, Adjunct lecturer in Strategic Intelligence and Information Management at Indiana University, CEO of IRAD Strategic Consulting, Inc, PhD from U Chicago, Jamsheed K. Choksy, Professor of Central Eurasian, International, Iranian, and Islamic Studies and Former Director of The Middle Eastern Studies Program at Indiana University, Council on the Humanities at the US National Endowment for the Humanities, PhD from Harvard University, “American Intervention in Failing Countries is Necessary,” May 12th 2011]

Intervention to stabilize and reconstruct failed, failing, fragile, and even re-
AND
Third World countries do impact everyone and require attention and resolution.[9]

Current post-intervention reconstruction will fail to successfully utilize COIN
Luján ’12, Special Forces Major, [Fernando Luján, International Affairs Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations based at the Center for a New American Security, Major in the U.S. Special Forces, Served in the Pentagon's AfPak Hands program, “Beyond Groundhog Day,” Foreign Affairs; Jan/Feb 2012, Vol. 91 Issue 1, pg. 180-183]

The real danger as the United States withdraws from Afghanistan and Iraq is that U
AND
condemning U.S. soldiers to repeat the mistakes of the past.
Airlift key to effective COIN operations – boosts morale, supply routes, and weeds out insurgency basing
Owen and Mueller 7, RAND Corp, ‘(Robert and Karl, “Airlift Capabilities for Future U.S. Counterinsurgency Operation” http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG565.pdf)

U.S. armed forces are engaged in ongoing counterinsurgency (COIN) operations
AND
as effectively as military defeats. (See pp. 19–21.)

Purchasing more C-17As solves – it’s the best means of rapid transport
CBO, ‘5 (Congressional Budget Office, September, “Options for Strategic Military Transportation Systems” http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/ftpdocs/66xx/doc6661/09-27-strategicmobility.pdf)

Option 1A: Purchase More C-17s The first approach in CBO’s analysis would
AND
deliveries to the theater by about 350 tons per day during surge operations.

Only COIN can win future wars – the alternative is coercive tactics which ensure escalation
Kahl 07 [Colin Kahl, Former Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for the Middle East, Associate Professor in the Security Studies Program in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University, Fellow at the Center for a New American Security, “COIN of the Realm,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2007, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63035/colin-h-kahl/coin-of-the-realm?page=show]

HEARTS AND MINDS Counterinsurgency refers to military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological
AND
directs commanders to determine how to "eliminate extremists without alienating the populace."

North Korea collapse is inevitable
Kim, ’11 [Hyung-Jin Kim, Writer for the Associated Press, “SKorea: Nuclear push could bring North's collapse,” January 17th 2011, http://www.kansascity.com/2011/01/17/2588331/skorea-nuclear-push-could-bring.html]

Impoverished North Korea could bring its own collapse if it keeps pouring scarce national resources
AND
"I am inclined to see it as an indication of their desperation."

Irregular warfare capabilities key to prevent the collapse from escalating
Maxwell ’10 [Colonel David S. Maxwell, US Army Special Forces Officer, Commander of Joint Special Operations Task Force Philippines, Faculty at the National War College, “Irregular Warfare on the Korean Peninsula,” November 30th 2010, http://usacac.army.mil/cac2/call/docs/11-23/ch_14.asp]

The fundamental assumption for this paper is that the threats that may emerge following collapse
AND
is the same as unconventional warfare and this breeds confusion within the alliance.

Escalation goes global
Bennett & Lind 11 [Bruce W. Bennett, Senior Defense Analyst at The RAND Corporation, Jennifer Lind, Professor of Government at Dartmouth College, “The Collapse of North Korea: Military Missions and Requirements,” International Security, Volume 36, Number 2, Fall 2011]

A government collapse in North Korea could unleash a series of catastrophes on the peninsula
AND
countries,6 and the risk of escalation to the nuclear level.7

Adv - Humanitarian Aid

Advantage three is Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid capability gap now – the DOD will be unable to fill the void in the near term
GAO ‘9 (The Govt Accountability Office. November 12, “Strategic Airlift Gap Has Been Addressed, but Tactical Airlift Plans Are Evolving as Key Issues Have Not Been Resolved” http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-10-67)

Department of Defense (DOD) used nearly 700 aircraft, as well as commercial
AND
of C-130s and C-27Js needed to perform Army missions.
Several impacts –

Military humanitarianism’s key to sustainable ground forces and credible deterrence – That also solves international relations
Stalder ’10 [Lieutenant General Keith J. Stalder Commanding General, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Pacific Tokyo American Center, “Marine General Stalder Speaks at Tokyo American Center” Feb 17, http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/p/tp-20100217-71.html//Cal-JV]

One more thing about ground forces. Their mission is not just about conflicts.
AND
the site of a disaster within hours or days, our competitors notice.

Alternative’s pre-emptive and unpredictable nuclear strikes against American assets – extinction
Schneider ‘8 [Mark. National Institute for Public Policy. “The Future of the US Nuclear Deterrent” Comparative Strategy, Vol 27 No 2. JSTORCal-JV]

According to the Pentagon’s Quadrennial Defense Review, the United States must maintain a “
AND
legacy arms control and its constraints upon U.S. conventional capabilities.

Second impact’s Japan – humanitarian airlift’s vital to post-Fukushima reconstruction
DY ‘11[The Daily Yomiuri. “Japan, US Take Steps Toward Boosting Alliance” 4/11/11 lnCal-JV]

U.S. forces, in tandem with the Self-Defense Forces,
AND
bilateral cooperation. These discussions will take the alliance to a new level.

It’s on the brink
CIM 7-2 [The Chosun Ilbo Media Company. “Japan Resumes Work on Nuclear Processing Plant” 7/2/12 lnCal-JV]

The Japanese government on Tuesday authorized the construction of additional facilities to reprocess spent nuclear
AND
plutonium reprocessing facility in Rokkasho, which could be used for military purposes.

Solves warming
Moore ‘6 [Pat. Chief Scientist of Greenspirit Strategies. “Hearing of the Energy and Water Development, and Related Agencies Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Committee; Subject: Nuclear Energy Oversight” The FDCH, 9/13/6 lnCal-JV]

MR. MOORE: But the way I would kind of sum it up is
AND
for energy in the world. I think that is a true statement.

Climate change causes extinction
Sify ‘10 [Sydney newspaper citing Ove Hoegh-Guldberg, professor at University of Queensland and Director of the Global Change Institute, and John Bruno, associate professor of Marine Science at UNC (Sify News, “Could unbridled climate changes lead to human extinction?”, http://www.sify.com/news/could-unbridled-climate-changes-lead-to-human-extinction-news-international-kgtrOhdaahc.html]

The findings of the comprehensive report: 'The impact of climate change on the world's
AND
warned, according to a GCI release. These findings were published in Science

Disaster response independently solves extinction from unpredictable threats
Sid-Ahmed ‘5 (Mohamed, Al-Ahram Online, Jan 6-12, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/724/op3.htm)

The human species has never been exposed to a natural upheaval of this magnitude within
AND
now forced to live with the possibility of an imminent demise of humankind.

Humanitarian crises should filter your impact calculus – state failure makes every impact worse
Perrin ’98(Pierre, medical doctor for the ICRC before becoming the organization’s Chief Medical Officer. He gives courses at the universities of Aix-en-Provence, in France, and Louvain, in Belgium, and at John Hopkins University in the United States, “The impact of humanitarian aid on conflict development”) http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/57jpcj.htm MissT

The consequences of conflict from a humanitarian point of view Malnutrition, illness, wounds
AND
Three million farmers, finally, were prevented by the conflict from farming.

Only the plan solves – more C17’s are key
Knight and Bolkcom ‘8[Knight and Bolkcom, Foreign Affairs Defense and Trade Division at CRS, ‘8 (William an Christopher, April 15, “Strategic Airlift Modernization: Analysis of C-5: Modernization and C-17 Acquisition Issues”http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL34264.pdf]

Humanitarian Relief Operations Strategic airlift has proven its value many times since World War II
AND
demonstrating the importance of strategic airlift in mitigating consequences after natural disasters. 15


1AC - NIB - Meadows

<See 1AC - NIB - Greenhill>

1AC - NIB - Whitman

Adv - Econ

Contention One is Economics

Scenario One is Jobs
First, the economy is in a crisis – NIB enables massive investment in infrastructure that creates millions of jobs at zero cost.
Rohatyn & Slater 2012
special adviser to the chairman and CEO of Lazard, AND former US transportation secretary (2/20/2012, Felix Rohatyn and Rodney Slater, “America needs its own infrastructure bank,” http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/c61b2084-5bb3-11e1-a447-00144feabdc0.html)

America needs to invest in infrastructure. Despite signs of improvement, our economy is
AND
, and their repayment would allow the bank to be self-financing.

And, the economy is failing due to unemployment rate – NIB critical to long-term sustainable jobs
Tyson 2011
(Laura D’Andrea Tyson, chair of the Council of Economic Advisers and the head of the National Economic Council under President Clinton. currently a professor at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, “What it will take for President Obama and big business to bring back American jobs”, Washington Post, August 18, 2011, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/on-leadership/for-president-obama-and-american-business-fixing-the-us-jobs-deficit/2011/08/18/gIQAhW8ZNJ_story.html)

Nearly 14 million Americans are unemployed, another 8.4 million are working part
AND
tens of thousands of good-paying jobs in the next few years.

Lack of transportation infrastructure loses the U.S. $1 Trillion of GDP a year, key to economic growth and jobs.
Hale 10-31, POLITICO correspondent, (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
But we don’t need a report to tell us what we all know from our
AND
which understand that this is about economic growth and jobs for countless Americans.

NIB infrastructure creates jobs and stimulates growth
Trumbull 2011
Staff writer for the Christian Science Monitor (Mark, “Is Gary Johnson right about shovel-ready jobs? 5 infrastructure challenges,”
September 23, 2011, The Christian Science Monitor, Lexis)

Republican presidential candidate Gary Johnson scored a rhetorical winner in a Republican debate Thursday by
AND
busy roads to letting states charge tolls on federal highways that need repair.

We control uniqueness – the economy is sinking into a double-dip because of unemployment and only the plan solves
Zakaria 2011
PhD in Political Science @ Harvard (6/13/2011, Fareed, “Zakaria: U.S. needs an infrastructure bank,” http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2011/06/13/zakaria-u-s-needs-an-infrastructure-bank/,)

President Obama has proposed a number of specific policies to tackle the jobs crisis,
AND
? That moment of bipartisanship might actually be the biggest payoff of all.

Independently collapses trade and stability
Fordham 2010
(Tina Fordham, “Investors can’t ignore the rise of geopolitical risk”, Financial Times, 7-17-2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/dc71f272-7a14-11df-9871-00144feabdc0.html)

Geopolitical risk is on the rise after years of relative quiet – potentially creating further
AND
would be a very unwelcome time to see the return of geopolitical risk.”

No disads – Trade creates structural disincentives for state war
Griswold 2011
Daniel Griswold is director of the Center for Trade Policy Studies at the Cato Institute and author of Mad about Trade: Why Main Street America Should Embrace Globalization. “Free Trade and the Global Middle Class,” Hayek Society Journal Vol. 9 http://www.cato.org/pubs/articles/Hayek-Society-Journal-Griswold.pdf Accessed 6/30/12

Our more globalized world has also yielded a “peace dividend.” It may not
AND
and less likely those gains will be destroyed by civil conflict and war.

Terrorism causes global nuclear escalation – national retaliation goes global
Morgan in 2009
(Dennis Ray, Professor of Foreign Studies at Hankuk University, December, “World on fire: two scenarios of the destruction of human civilization and possible extinction of the human race” Futures, Vol 41 Issue 10, p 683-693, ScienceDirect) MG

In a remarkable website on nuclear war, Carol Moore asks the question "Is
AND
, taking a savage toll upon the environment and fragile ecosphere as well.

Scenario Two is Infrastructure Spending

Infrastructure in the United States is rapidly deteriorating, which will cause economic disaster
Strauss ’12 [Rebecca Strauss, associate director of Renewing America Publications at the Council on Foreign Relations, “Federal Transportation Infrastructure Policy,” June, online]

Concerns over the state of U.S. transportation infrastructure are higher on the
AND
country waits to start repairs, the more costly the repairs will become.

After Hurricane Sandy, investment in U.S. infrastructure is even more vital
Hale 10-31, POLITICO correspondent31 (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
Not surprisingly, the first three debates of the presidential campaign focused on pocketbook issues
AND
now ranks the United States 25th in the overall quality of its infrastructure.


NIB solves—overcomes status quo funding failures and enables large-scale projects
McConaghy and Kessler 2011
Director of the Third Way Economic Program, AND Vice President for Policy at Third Way (January 2011, Ryan McConaghy and Jim Kessler, “A National Infrastructure Bank,” http://www.bernardlschwartz.com/political-initiatives/Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_A_National_Infrastructure_Bank-1.pdf,

America’s economic future will hinge on how fast and well we move people, goods
AND
once-in-a-lifetime window to make enduring infrastructure investments.

Infrastructure spending is comparatively the best form of economic stimulus—NIB is the most efficient mechanism
Tyson et al. 10
(Professor @ the Haas School of Business of UC-Berkeley, PhD in Economics @ MIT, former Chair of the US President’s Council of Economic Advisers, served as the Director of the National Economic Council, Phillips, former President of Oracle, MBA @ Hampton University, member of the Economic Recovery Advisory Board, *Wolf, CEO and Chairman of UBS Americas, member of the Economic Recovery Advisor Board, BS in Economics @ Wharton [Laura, Charles, Robert, The Wall Street Journal, “The U.S. Needs and Infrastructure Bank,” January 15, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704586504574654682516084584.html]

Our nation's investment in its physical infrastructure is far below what is necessary to meet
AND
and then justify its continued funding based on its performance and investment returns.

Domestic growth prevents war.
Erik Gartzke 2011 Erik Gartzke is an associate professor of political science at the University of California, San Diego. He studies institutional correlates to war and peace, with an emphasis on bargaining and rational choice theory. Gartzke holds a Ph.D.in political science from the University of Iowa and a B.A. in history from the University of San Francisco."Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound." Security in an Insecure World | Erik Gartzke | Cato Unbound. N.p., Feb. 2011. Web. 17 July 2012. <http://www.cato-unbound.org/2011/02/09/erik-gartzke/security-in-an-insecure-world/>.

Almost as informative as the decline in warfare has been where this decline is occurring
AND
the consolidating forces of prosperity prevail, that war becomes a durable anachronism.

The US is the underpinning of the global economy
Rahman 2011
former Ambassador and Chairman of the Centre for Foreign Affairs Studies. (Ashfaqur . “Another global recession?”. August 21. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=199461)

Several developments, especially in Europe and the US, fan this fear. First
AND
we may be in a new double dip or W-shaped recession.


Rigorous studies proves a strong correlation between decline and conflict
Royal ‘10
(director of Cooperative Threat Reduction at the U.S. Department of Defense(Jedediah, Economics of War and Peace: Economic, Legal, and Political Perspectives, pg 213-215)

Less intuitive is how periods of economic decline may increase the likelihood of external conflict
AND
not featured prominently in the economic-security debate and deserves more attention.

Collapse in growth makes the US uncooperative and desperate – leads to hegemonic wars
Goldstein 2007
Professor of Global Politics and International Relations @ University of Pennsylvania, Avery Goldstein, “Power transitions, institutions, and China's rise in East Asia: Theoretical expectations and evidence,” Journal of Strategic Studies, Volume30, Issue 4 & 5 August 2007, pages 639 – 682

Two closely related, though distinct, theoretical arguments focus explicitly on the consequences for
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the period prior to the possible crossover.19 pg. 647-650

That causes U.S-China Conflict
HSU 11-[“Economic Ties Could Help Prevent US-China War” Jeremy Hsu, Innovation NewsDaily Senior Writer; 01 November 2011 05:32 PM ET;
http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/660-china-military-cyber-national-security.html]

As the U.S. faces China's economic and military rise, it also
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in the defense as well as economic field," the Rand analysts say.

China will escalate the conflict – perception of rational escalation ensures US gets drawn into the nuclear arms race
Glaser ’11, PolSci Prof at Goerge Washington, (Charles, March/April, “Will China’s Rise Lead to War?” Foreign Affairs, Vol 90 Issue 2, EbscoHost)
ACCOMMODATION ON TAIWAN? THE PROSPECTS for avoiding intense military competition and war may be
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military efforts and a general poisoning of U.S.-Chinese relations.

Plan

Thus the plan: The United States federal government should establish a national transportation infrastructure bank.

Solvency


This is not a partisan issue, investment in transportation infrastructure, NIB specifically is key.
Hale 10-31, POLITICO correspondent, (Marcia, POLITICO, “Our infrastructure needs investment”, http://dyn.politico.com/printstory.cfm?uuid=5F9F0A25-EA63-43D6-AC8B-A7756B8868B8)
This is not a partisan issue. Support for investment in infrastructure ranges from the Chamber of Commerce to the AFL-CIO, both of which understand that this is about economic growth and jobs for countless Americans.
But the solution is about more than just “throwing money” at the problem
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a price. Which choice makes more sense? Which would you choose?

The NIB’s competitive, inter-modal, multijurisdictional approach is key—only federal action solves
Istrate and Puentes 2009
(Istrate, Emilia, senior research analyst and associate fellow with the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative specializing in transportation financing, and Puentes, Robert, Senior Fellow and Director of the Metropolitan Infrastructure Initiative, December 2009, “Investing for Success Examining a Federal Capital Budget and a National Infrastructure Bank”, Brookings Institute)

A properly designed NIB is an attractive alternative for a new type of federal investment
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debt to public or private entities in leveraging private co-investment.110

Federal action key – state banks failing already
Halleman 2011
- Business graduate with analytical and program management experience across a range of transportation and infrastructure issues; Head of Communications & Media Relations at International Road Federation (Brendan, “Establishing a National Infrastructure Bank - examining precedents and potential”, October 2011, http://issuu.com/transportgooru/docs/ibank_memo_-_brenden_halleman)

The merits of establishing a National Infrastructure Bank are once again being debated in the
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Loan Program is currently no longer taking applications citing “state budget issues”.

1AC - Ableism- Silver & Black



Mobility is usually reserved for those who can afford to take their relationship to their body for granted.
Celeste Lagan* (UC Berkeley associate professor of English ‘Mobility Disability’ Public Culture Volume 13, Number 3, Fall 2001 pp. 459-484 |http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/public_culture/v013/13.3langan.html)
“steady stream of seemingly innocuous funding and operational decisions . . . have, since 1964, quietly but effectively restricted the mobility of poor African-Americans and other disfavored minorities who do not own cars. Meanwhile, these same officials and citizens have simultaneously lavished public funds on transportation accommodations favored by the car-owning majority, who have used the new and improved roads, streets, and highways in effect to live free from close contact with poor African-Americans and others similarly situated.”


Certain populations are extended the right to participate socially, politically and economically in the public sphere, while others are systemically excluded via an inability to access public transportation
(Ivonne 2008) (, Florida State University, 5/16/2008[“Accessing Transit as Universal Design”, Journal of Planning Literature 2008, Sage Journals, http://jpl.sagepub.com/content/23/1/4.full.pdf+html]MW
Although influential transportation planners believe that given the low share of transit travel, transit cannot be the public strategy for improving mobility disadvantaged individuals (Pucher and Renne 2003, 74),4 disability theory and activism have challenged these views as exclusionary on several fronts (Corker and Shakespeare 2002; Pothier and Devlin 2006). First, on the basis that mode-split statistics are a poor measure of transit demand, since they do not account for suppressed trips (i.e., forgone trips for lack of transit service or impaired accesses to it) (Hine and Grieco 2002). Second, that mainstream transportation planning and design are based on the notion of a “universally able and disembodied” subject (i.e., without biological and social attributes) (Hine and Mitchell 2001; Imrie 2000; Langan 2001) and thus exclude not only impaired but also many nonimpaired people. Third, that transportation planning espouses the medical model of disability whereby the individual’s body, rather than the built environment and social attitudes against disabled people, is the main debilitating cause in personal mobility (Langan 2001). Fourth, that the transportation disciplines and lobbies have endorsed and promoted a universal system of auto-mobility that alienates impaired people and discriminates against all who, for financial, physical, temporal, or psychological reasons, cannot access or use automobiles (Imrie 2000; Hine and Mitchell 2001; Langan 2001). The literature on mobility and exclusion research identifies several forms of social exclusion (i.e., physical, geographical, from facilities) resulting from the organization of transportation and the quality of transit service provision and its relation to the built environment, urban form, and land use patterns (see Table 2). These mobility-limiting factors also include economic, fear-based, and time-based exclusions, which condition people’s immobility and capacity to participate in mainstream society (Cass, Shove, and Urry 2005; Church, Frost, and Sullivan 2000; Grieco 2003; Hine and Mitchell 2001; TCRP 1999).

Accessibility is a prerequisite to the political
(Jean Flynn 12, June 29, 2012, “Lorain County Transit- an unacceptable situation”
http://midlifeandtreachery.wordpress.com/2012/06/29/lorain-county-transit-an-unacceptable-situation/, accessed 7/12/12)
Imagine you woke up tomorrow and there were no cars. You didn’t have one, your neighbor didn’t have one, your cousin in Vermillion didn’t have one. Also no bikes, vespas, or motorcycles. No highway transport of any kind, except for the occasional delayed and underfunded ambulance. So you could get to medical care sometimes. But what is the list of things you are completely unable to do? If groceries aren’t close, that’s shot. What about your pharmacy? I’m one of the lucky ones. By accident of location I am close to church, banking, pharmacy, and groceries.) What about clothing, shoes, or dental care? Glasses? Never mind the out of reach luxury of visiting friends, taking in a movie, or going to the park. Out to dinner? Forget about it. That’s the kind of life that many many people with disabilities live in Lorain County right now, and have since 2009 when paratransit and fixed transit disappeared from everywhere in Lorain County except Lorain and Elyria in 2009. (With some exceptions that I’ll detail in a moment.) And please don’t bring out that tired old saw: “We don’t have that problem in Lorain County…I never see any folks with disabilities in my business anyway so it’s not my problem.” The *reason* you don’t see us spending our time or money in your businesses, houses of worship, or homes, folks….is because we *cannot get to them.* If we cannot get to then, how would you ever be able to accurately grasp the scope of the problem? Some of us do not have friends or family with accessible transport that can step in. It’s not like there’s a lift van in every garage. We cannot walk where we need to go. We cannot defray some of our own “cost” to society as we would very much like to do, by full or part time employment, because how in the heck do we get there? One of my neighbors lost a cool job because her transport source became inaccessible to her. There was a meeting last week for us to voice our opinions about this. Be heard. Irony of Ironies, Couldn’t get there to talk about why I couldn’t get there,


the devaluation of individuals justifies of other kinds of oppression
(Siebers 9, University of Michigan, Professor of Literary and Cultural Criticism, 9, Tobin, “The Aesthetics of Human Disqualification”, Oct 28, Lecture, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdisabilities.temple.edu%2Fmedia%2Fds%2Flecture20091028siebersAesthetics_FULL.doc&ei=LWz4T6jyN8bHqAHLkY2LCQ&usg=AFQjCNGdkDuSJkRXMHgbXqvuyyeDpldVcQ&sig2=UCGDC4tHbeh2j7-Yce9lsA, accessed 7/7/12,)

Oppression is the systematic victimization of one group by another. It is a form of intergroup violence. That oppression involves “groups,” and not “individuals,” means that it concerns identities, and this means, furthermore, that oppression always focuses on how the body appears, both on how it appears as a public and physical presence and on its specific and various appearances. Oppression is justified most often by the attribution of natural inferiority—what some call “in-built” or “biological” inferiority. Natural inferiority is always somatic, focusing on the mental and physical features of the group, and it figures as disability. The prototype of biological inferiority is disability. The representation of inferiority always comes back to the appearance of the body and the way the body makes other bodies feel. This is why the study of oppression requires an understanding of aesthetics—not only because oppression uses aesthetic judgments for its violence but also because the signposts of how oppression works are visible in the history of art, where aesthetic judgments about the creation and appreciation of bodies are openly discussed. One additional thought must be noted before I treat some analytic examples from the historical record. First, despite my statement that disability now serves as the master trope of human disqualification, it is not a matter of reducing other minority identities to disability identity. Rather, it is a matter of understanding the work done by disability in oppressive systems. In disability oppression, the physical and mental properties of the body are socially constructed as disqualifying defects, but this specific type of social construction happens to be integral at the present moment to the symbolic requirements of oppression in general. In every oppressive system of our day, I want to claim, the oppressed identity is represented in some way as disabled, and although it is hard to understand, the same process obtains when disability is the oppressed identity. “Racism” disqualifies on the basis of race, providing justification for the inferiority of certain skin colors, bloodlines, and physical features. “Sexism” disqualifies on the basis of sex/gender as a direct representation of mental and physical inferiority. “Classism” disqualifies on the basis of family lineage and socioeconomic power as proof of inferior genealogical status. “Ableism” disqualifies on the basis of mental and physical differences, first selecting and then stigmatizing them as disabilities. The oppressive system occults in each case the fact that the disqualified identity is socially constructed, a mere convention, representing signs of incompetence, weakness, or inferiority as undeniable facts of nature. As racism, sexism, and classism fall away slowly as justifications for human inferiority—and the critiques of these prejudices prove powerful examples of how to fight oppression—the prejudice against disability remains in full force, providing seemingly credible reasons for the belief in human inferiority and the oppressive systems built upon it. This usage will continue, I expect, until we reach a historical moment when we know as much about the social construction of disability as we now know about the social construction of race, class, gender, and sexuality. Disability represents at this moment in time the final frontier of justifiable human inferiority.

Plan


Therefore

The United States federal government should substantially increase its investment in transportation infrastructure accessibility.

We are political
Tom Koch 8(Tom, Adjunct Professor of Medical Ethics at the University of British Columbia, “Spaced Out in the City: the Wrinkled World of Transit for Those With Limited Mobility”, Disability Studies Quarterly, Vol. 28 No. 2, Spring, http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/94/94)

The research is academic to the extent that it seeks to find a consistent methodology encouraging the investigation of urban accessibility both in terms of characteristics of different modes of travel and of constraints on the mobility of individuals. It is academic in its critique of an existing assumption of space. The goal, however, is practical, activist, and local. The hope is to develop a methodology by which debates over urban accessibility can be pursued in a climate not simply of political dissent (See, for example, Imrie and Edwards 2007; Valentine 2003; Gleeson 2000) but instead grounded in clear expressions of concrete differences. The hope is that development of this approach will serve both local communities of difference and transit officials who are making a strong, good faith effort to expand their service to assure the greatest possible ridership.


They naturalize the violent exclusion of people from political and social consideration
Bérubé 2003(Michael, Paterno Family Professor in Literature at Pennsylvania State University, “Citizenship and Disability”, Spring, http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=506)

Could anything make this clearer than the politics of disability? Imagine a building in which political philosophers are debating, in the wake of the attacks of September 11, 2001, the value and the purpose of participatory parity over against forms of authoritarianism or theocracy. Now imagine that this building has no access ramps, no Braille or large-print publications, no American Sign Language interpreters, no elevators, no special-needs paraprofessionals, no in-class aides. Contradictory as such a state of affairs may sound, it's a reasonably accurate picture of what contemporary debate over the meaning of democracy actually looks like. How can we remedy this? Only when we have fostered equal participation in debates over the ends and means of democracy can we have a truly participatory debate over what "participatory parity" itself means. That debate will be interminable in principle, since our understandings of democracy and parity are infinitely revisable, but lest we think of deliberative democracy as a forensic society dedicated to empyreal reaches of abstraction, we should remember that debates over the meaning of participatory parity set the terms for more specific debates about the varieties of human embodiment. These include debates about prenatal screening, genetic discrimination, stem-cell research, euthanasia, and, with regard to physical access, ramps, curb cuts, kneeling buses, and buildings employing what is now known as universal design. Leftists and liberals, particularly those associated with university humanities departments, are commonly charged with being moral relativists, unable or unwilling to say (even after September 11) why one society might be "better" than another. So let me be especially clear on this final point. I think there's a very good reason to extend the franchise, to widen the conversation, to democratize our debates, and to make disability central to our theories of egalitarian social justice. The reason is this: a capacious and supple sense of what it is to be human is better than a narrow and partial sense of what it is to be human, and the more participants we as a society can incorporate into the deliberation of what it means to be human, the greater the chances that that deliberation will in fact be transformative in such a way as to enhance our collective capacities to recognize each other as humans entitled to human dignity. As Jamie reminds me daily, both deliberately and unwittingly, most Americans had no idea what people with Down syndrome could achieve until we'd passed and implemented and interpreted and reinterpreted a law entitling them all to a free appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. I can say all this without appealing to any innate justification for human dignity and human rights, and I can also say this: Without a sufficient theoretical and practical account of disability, we can have no account of democracy worthy of the name. Perhaps some of our fellow citizens with developmental disabilities would not put the argument quite this way; even though Jamie has led me to think this way, he doesn't talk the way I do. But those of us who do participate in political debates, whether about school funding in a specific district or about the theory and practice of democracy at its most abstract, have the obligation to enhance the abilities of our children and our fellow citizens with disabilities to participate in the life of the United States as political and moral equals with their nondisabled peers-both for their own good, and for the good of democracy, which is to say, for the good of all



Their framework can’t solve the affirmative – resistance and disagreement allows a place for difference and overcomes stagnation in the community.
Secomb 2000 (Linnell Secomb is a lecturer in Gender Studies at the University of Sydney. She is currently working on a manuscript for a book entitled Discordant Community and has published in the areas of feminist theory, legal theory, and European philosophy. ) "Linnell Secomb - Fractured Community - Hypatia 15:2", http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/hypatia/v015/15.2secomb.html

This reformulated universalist model of community would be founded on "a moral conversation in which the capacity to reverse perspectives, that is, the willingness to reason from the others' point of view, and the sensitivity to hear their voice is paramount" (1992, 8). Benhabib argues that this model does not assume that consensus can be reached but that a "reasonable agreement" can be achieved. This formulation of community on the basis of a conversation in which perspectives can be reversed, also implies a new understanding of identity and alterity. Instead of the generalized other, Benhabib argues that ethics, politics, and community must engage with the concrete or particular other. A theory that only engages with the generalized other sees the other as a replica of the self. In order to overcome this reductive assimilation of alterity, Benhabib formulates a universalist community which recognizes the concrete other and which allows us to view others as unique individuals (1992, 10). Benhabib's critique of universalist liberal theory and her formulation of an alternative conversational model of community are useful and illuminating. However, I suggest that her vision still assumes the desirability of commonality and agreement,which, I argue, ultimately destroy difference. Her vision of a community of conversing alterities assumes sufficient similarity between alterities [End Page 138] so that each can adopt the point of view of the other and, through this means, reach a "reasonable agreement." She assumes the necessity of a common goal for the community that would be the outcome of the "reasonable agreement." Benhabib's community, then, while attempting to enable difference and diversity, continues to assume a commonality of purpose within community and implies a subjectivity that would ultimately collapse back into sameness. Moreover, Benhabib's formulation of community, while rejecting the fantasy of consensus, nevertheless privileges communication, conversation, and agreement. This privileging of communication assumes that all can participate in the rational conversation irrespective of difference. Yet this assumes rational interlocutors, and rationality has tended, both in theory and practice, to exclude many groups and individuals, including: women, who are deemed emotional and corporeal rather than rational; non-liberal cultures and individuals who are seen as intolerant and irrational; and minoritarian groups who do not adopt the authoritative discourses necessary for rational exchanges. In addition, this ideal of communication fails to acknowledge the indeterminacy and multiplicity of meaning in all speech and writing. It assumes a singular, coherent, and transparent content. Yet, as Gayatri Spivak writes: "the verbal text is constituted by concealment as much as revelation. . . . [T]he concealment is itself a revelation and visa versa" (Spivak 1976, xlvi). For Spivak, Jacques Derrida, and other deconstructionists, all communication involves contradiction, inconsistency, and heterogeneity. Derrida's concept of différance indicates the inevitable deferral and displacement of any final coherent meaning. The apparently rigorous and irreducible oppositions that structure language, Derrida contends, are a fiction. These mutually exclusive dichotomies turn out to be interrelated and interdependent: their meanings and associations, multiple and ambiguous (Derrida 1973, 1976). While Benhabib's objective is clearly to allow all groups within a community to participate in this rational conversation, her formulation fails to recognize either that language is as much structured by miscommunication as by communication, or that many groups are silenced or speak in different discourses that are unintelligible to the majority.Minority groups and discourses are frequently ignored or excluded from political discussion and decision-making because they do not adopt the dominant modes of authoritative and rational conversation that assume homogeneity and transparency.


Neg

Kritiks

Capitalism

1. Capitalism has reached its tipping point and now is key – the revolution is coming and will be successful
Hunziker 2012
(Robert website that posts political articles and has been claimed to be the best political newsletter by Out of Bounds Magazine, ‘12 (CounterPunch.org Robert, 7/11, “Capitalism’s Boundless War”, http://www.counterpunch.org/2012/07/11/capitalisms-boundless-war/) CW

The streets of the world’s capital cities are war zones of hopelessness, but as
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end on a sanguine note but often times end in a sanguinary manner.


2. The repair of transportation infrastructure is necessary for the perpetuation of capital
Bryant, 2011(Dec 1, Levi, Philosophy Professor at Collin, “Onticology and Politics,” http://larvalsubjects.wordpress.com/2011/12/01/onticology-and-politics/)
To get a sense of what I’m talking about, take the example of OWS
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the system intact. This is why I’m an object-oriented ontologist.

3. Resisting this reliance on economic evaluation is the ultimate ethical responsibility – the current social order guarantees social exclusion on a global scale
Zizek & Daly ‘4(Slavoj, Prof. of European Graduate School, Intl. Director of the Birkbeck Inst. for Humanities, U. of London, and Senior Researcher @ Inst. of Sociology, U. of Ljubljiana, and Glyn, Professor Intl. Studies @ Northampton U., “Risking the Impossible” http://www.lacan.com/zizek-daly.htm)

It is in the light of this more subtle perspective on the real that zizek
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abject Other to that of a ‘glitch’ in an otherwise sound matrix.


4. The alternative: Vote negative as an act of confrontational refusal.
Saying no the affirmative, in face of their truth claims directly impedes the flow of capital, allowing for the creation of new zones of solidarity.
Gharavi, 2012(May 19, Maryam Monalisa, Ph.D. candidate in Comparative Literature and Film & Visual Studies at Harvard University, “In Defense of Spontaneous Contestation and/or Beauty,” The New Inquiry, http://thenewinquiry.com/blogs/southsouth/in-defense-of-spontaneous-contestation-andor-beauty/)
His starting point: design is a marker and site for neoliberal markets. One
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became a foreseeable form of real-body/data-body solidarity.



Tech

Aff’s focus on infrastructure renders humans faceless extensions of the transportation grid.
Marx, 2010 (Leo, “Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept”, Technology and Culture, Volume 51, Number 3, July 2010, accessed through Project MUSE)
In common parlance, nonetheless, when we refer to one of these complex systems
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the direction technology is taking us" or "changing our lives."28

Technological thought can only confront its inherent limitations through the creation of death and violence.
SWAZO, ‘02 (Professor of Philosophy at the University of Alaska, Norman K., “Crisis Theory and World Order: Heideggerian Reflections”, p. 157-60)
The grounding question claims us today in the historical moment of philosophy's completion. It
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a `transcendent-permanent' and an `earthly-temporal’ is transformed.
The alternative is to reject the affirmative and their technocratic presuppositions

Alt solves—rejecting technological thought is the only way to open up the possibility for authentic engagement with the world.
Swazo, ’02 (Philosophy—University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 2002 (Crisis Theory and World Order: Heideggerian Reflections, p.141-2)

Insofar as it is in thinking and speech that phenomena are disclosed to and for
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that one reject the legitimacy of the systems approach to world order theorizing.


Global Local

The affirmative tackles oppression through an externalized global framework - this bankrupts their emancipatory efforts and sustains the dominant force of global ordering. Their conception of agency is precisely what enables the continued existence of their harms scenarios.
Nayar '99
Jayan, school of law at University of Warwick, “SYMPOSIUM: RE-FRAMING INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: Orders of Inhumanity,” Fall 1999, 9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599, lexis
The discussion in this article thus far on the technologies of ordering may be regarded
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cannot speak; what we refuse to see, we dare not speak.


And, their theoretical approach to emancipation is a dull-lived view and experience of oppression - we become trapped in endless theorizing about violence which dulls us to material oppression
Nayar '99
Jayan, school of law at University of Warwick, “SYMPOSIUM: RE-FRAMING INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: Orders of Inhumanity,” Fall 1999, 9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599,lexis
You see, I do feel wonder. I wonder at the immense industry of
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than in the abstracted "world," in living rather than in acting.

Additionally, the affirmative externalizes violence through role-play - they conceive of resistance as pretending that external institutions should take action to solve oppression. This removes any understanding of the subject in violence, producing a counterproductive and disabling politics and making violence inevitable.
Kappeler '95
Susanne, Professor at Cal-Berkeley and Al-Akhawayn University, The Will to Violence: The Politics of Personal Behavior, pg 10-11
‘We are the war’ does not mean that the responsibility for a war is
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our values’ according to the structures and the values of war and violence.


Alt text:
Vote negative to reject the affirmative's globalized vision and instead endorse the personal sphere of agency.
Progress and change can only happen through the alt – power functions through relationships, and the only true change we can produce is through ourselves – global action is always co-opted.
Nayar '99
Jayan, school of law at University of Warwick, “SYMPOSIUM: RE-FRAMING INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: Orders of Inhumanity,” Fall 1999, 9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599, lexis
We are today bombarded by images of our "one world." We speak of
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. This is, perhaps, the essential message of Mahatmas.


And, this ballot is uniquely key - ordering is sustained precisely through academic institutions such as debate, where students learn some forms of ordered and processed knowledge while alternate perspectives are silenced and shut out - voting aff only endorses a violent and detrimental method of knowledge production
Nayar '99
Jayan, school of law at University of Warwick, “SYMPOSIUM: RE-FRAMING INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE 21ST CENTURY: Orders of Inhumanity,” Fall 1999, 9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599, lexis
"We" too are subjects of this regulation. I speak here from my
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their integrity as constituting a self-contained universe of and for imagination.





Disadvantages

Elections




Obama’s ahead, but the race is close
Silver 11/1 (Nate, November 1, 2012, 10:16 AM FiveThirtyEight http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/01/oct-31-obamas-electoral-college-firewall-holding-in-polls/ )

None of this ought to have been surprising, exactly, if you have been
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are plenty of things that could go wrong, and sometimes they will.

<<< Insert Link>>>

Perception of wasteful spending alienates key voters in ohio
Jasinowski, 12(Jerry Jasinowski, an economist and author, served as President of the National Association of Manufacturers for 14 years and later The Manufacturing Institute, Political Machine, 6/8, lexis)

Second, the attempt to recall Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker, in which
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This will spread to other states like Ohio and Florida


Ohio key to Obama victory
Silver 11/1 (Nate, November 1, 2012, 10:16 AM FiveThirtyEight http://fivethirtyeight.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/11/01/oct-31-obamas-electoral-college-firewall-holding-in-polls/ )

Ohio remains the tipping-point state in the forecast, the one that puts
AND
most of those cases involve outcomes where he has already won Ohio anyway.


Romney win causes Iran strikes—causes escalating conflict
Hussain 9-12 Murtaza Hussain, Toronto-based writer and analyst focused on issues related to Middle Eastern politics, “Why war with Iran would spell disaster,” Al-Jazeera, 9/12/2012, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2012/09/201291194236970294.html
Leading members of the House and Congress from both parties as well as the closest
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already begun to tout the inevitability of this action in a Romney presidency.

Goes nuclear
Primakov ’10 Yevgeny Primakov, President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation, member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and member of the editorial board of Russia in Global Affairs, “The Fundamental Conflict,” New Eastern Outlook, 1/2/2010, http://www.journal-neo.com/?q=node/102
The Middle East conflict is unparalleled in terms of its potential for spreading globally.
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seems that President Obama’s position does not completely rule out such a possibility.

Fiscal Cliff

A deal on the fiscal cliff will pass – both parties know it’s necessary
Goldfab and Montgomery 2012
(Zachary Goldfarb and Lori Montgomery are writers for the Washington Post. “On ‘fiscal cliff,’ both sides lay groundwork for debate’s next phase” http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/obama-begins-building-public-case-for-extending-middle-class-tax-cuts/2012/11/26/d96dbe36-378f-11e2-8a97-363b0f9a0ab3_story.html)
Private talks between President Obama and top congressional leaders in search of a deal to avoid the year-end “fiscal cliff” are accelerating
AND

Norquist has long been a potent force in GOP politics, admonishing Republicans who express any openness to increasing tax collections and organizing opposition to them

Transportation spending will be confronted by Republicans, causes backlash against spending that halts further cooperation
Johnson 2012
Fawn, correspondent for National Journal, covering a range of issues including immigration, transportation and education, “Conservatives: Senate Bill Is 'Crap Sandwich'” March 19, 2012, http://transportation.nationaljournal.com/2012/03/conservatives-senate-bill-is-c.php#173458)
It took a lot of whining, but the Senate finally passed its two-year, $109 billion surface transportation bill last week
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and how Congress acted in previous years using earmarks and other special favors

Fiscal Cliff cuts defense spending and foreign aid
BARNO 11' David W. (Lieutenant General, Usa (Ret.), Nora Bensahel is the Deputy Director of Studies and a Senior Follow at the Center for a New American Security and Travis Sharp, is the Bacevich Fellow at the Center for a New American Security. “Responsible Defense in an Age of Austerity” October 2011, http://www.cnas.org/files/documents/publications/CNAS_HardChoices_BarnoBensahelSharp_0.pdf)
Based on extensive analysis and interviews with leading defense officials, we judge that the U.S. military’s ability to execute America’s global engagement strategy
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and ultimately choose what is necessary to ensure that the American people and the global priorities they value remain safe and secure.

Decrease in foreign aid to Afghanistan would cause instability in the region
Aikens 10/17/12
(Writer, photographer, and international freelance journalist. “Afghanistan's Fiscal Cliff” http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/10/17/afghanistan_s_fiscal_cliff)
KABUL — Afghanistan is a wash in foreign

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there has been little serious analysis about the way its spending is interlinked with Afghan politics.

Afghan stability key to deterring Central Asian conflict
Weinbaum 6[Marvin, June, Scholar-in-Residence, Middle East Institute http://www.usip.org/resources/afghanistan-and-its-neighbors-ever-dangerous-neighborhood]
The study posits that over much of the last four years Afghanistan's neighbors have assessed that support for a stable, independent, and economically strengthening Afghan state is preferable to any achievable alternatives
Poorly considered policies by international aid giver
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and the Kabul government have in some cases helped to increase suspicions and tensions with neighbors

Food Prices

Russian economy is strong now but agriculture is critical to keep it diverse—that’s key to the global economy
DELANEY 1-26-2011 (Martin, “Russia: The Wild East,” Investment And Pensions Europe)
However, many would argue they are wrong...
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...but now is the time that the great fortunes of the future are being made.


Transportation infrastructure investment lowers food prices
PECC 4 (“The Role of Transportation Infrastructure in a Seamless Food System,” Pacific Food System Outlook 2004-2005, http://www.pecc.org/resources/doc_view/638-pacific-food-system-outlook-the-role-of-transportation-infrastructure-in-a-seamless-food-system MGE)
From a local perspective, building...
AND
...services to avoid bottlenecks.


High grain prices key to Russian growth
AP NEWSWIRE 9-10-2008 (www.newsday.com/business/investing/wire/sns-ap-russian-breadbasket,0,5647019.story)
An American-made combine harvests barley..
AND
.today expects to harvest at least five tons of wheat out of the same plot, he said.

Nuclear war
FILGER 2009 (Sheldon, author and blogger for the Huffington Post, “Russian Economy Faces Disastrous Free Fall Contraction” http://www.globaleconomiccrisis.com/blog/archives/356)
In Russia historically, economic health... ...Global Economic Crisis is its least dangerous consequence.

Immigration Reform


Uniqueness: Obama will push and pass immigration reform this month – perfect mix of timing, momentum, and issue-based cooperation with the GOP.
Huff Post, 1/2 (Huffington Post, January 2, 2013, “Obama's Immigration Reform Push To Begin This Month” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/02/obama-immigration-reform_n_2398507.html)
WASHINGTON -- Despite a bruising fiscal cliff battle that managed to set the stage for an even more heated showdown that will likely take place in a matter of months,....
the chance to legislate through regular order on immigration reform might have leaders in both parties working together and singing 'Kumbaya,'" Sharry said.....

Plan guarantees a loss of capital – Transportation infrastructure is uniquely unpopular and Obama get the blame.
Rubinstein, ’12 (Reporter for Capital New York, has written for Bloomberg, the Wall Street Journal, and the New York Times [Dana Rubenstein “When is Obama going to have his Eisenhower moment?” March 27, 2012 http://www.capitalnewyork.com/article/politics/2012/03/5524547/when-obama-going-have-his-eisenhower-moment]

Ask a transportation expert who the last great transportation president was, and you're not bound to find much agreement......
..going so far as to propose eliminating mass-transit financing entirely from the gas tax.

Political capital is key.
LAHT, 12/31 (Latin American Herald Tribune “Obama Ready to Spend Political Capital on Immigration” December 31, 2012. http://laht.com/article.asp?categoryid=12395&articleid=329931)

President Barack Obama told Hispanic Democratic legislators on Wednesday that he will invest his political capital in an immigration reform package...
...will be “a struggle,” taking into account the opposition of many Republicans and other conservative groups.

Impacts:
1. Immigration reform resolves labor shortages and preserves US agricultural competiveness.
Bertini, ‘12 (Catherine, along with August Schumache & Robert L. Thompson. Catherine Bertini, Executive Director, UN World Food Program, 1992-2002 August Schumacher, Undersecretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services, US Department of Agriculture, 1997-2001 Robert L. Thompson, Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Policy, University of Illinois. “U.S. Agriculture and Nutrition Policy Statement: Transforming American Food and Agriculture Policy, A White Paper prepared for the 112th U.S. Congress, June 20, 2012)

The United States needs comprehensive immigration reform to maintain the agriculture sector’s global competiveness...
and a properly structured temporary worker program to fulfill future labor market needs while enhancing homeland security.

2. U.S. agricultural competitiveness solves extinction
Lugar, 4 – U.S. Senator – Indiana, (Richard, “Plant Power” Our Planet v. 14 n. 3, http://www.unep.org/OurPlanet/imgversn/143/lugar.html

In a world confronted by global terrorism, turmoil in the Middle East, burgeoning nuclear threats and other crises...
..........humanitarian role in the survival of billions of people and the health of our planet.

Counterplans

TIGER

Text: The United States federal government should issue a competitive Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery loan for <<<INSERT MANDATES OF THE PLAN>>

The CP sets up a competitive-merit based approach for transportation infrastructure investment that solves the aff
Herr, 11
(Phillip, “Competitive Grant Programs Could Benefit from Increased Performance Focus and Better Documentation of Key Decisions,” http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d11234.pdf)
The TIGER program represented an important step toward investing in projects of regional and national
AND
expertly administer a multi-modal, multi-billion dollar discretionary program.

Bidding is key to solve cost overruns
Wurfel, 11
(Michigan Governor’s Office, Rick, “Governor says revitalized infrastructure is road to Michigan's success,” http://www.michigan.gov/snyder/0,4668,7-277-59151-264676--,00.html)
While noting the state's continued innovations in transportation infrastructure and new technology, Snyder called
AND
construction and maintenance contracts to competitive bidding from the public and private sectors.

Public hates cost overruns
Perez and Stovall, 12
(Jessica and Tess, March, The Schwartz Initiative on American Economic Policy, “Coming in on Budget: Infrastructure Contracting Reform,” http://content.thirdway.org/publications/509/Third_Way_Idea_Brief_-_Coming_in_On_Budget_Infrastructure_Contracting_Reform.pdf)
Cost overruns erode public trust in infrastructure spending. Polling reveals broad support for modernizing
AND
there’s anything that Americans are more cynical about than politics, it’s construction.”

States

Text: The 50 states, territories, and Washington D.C. should [__]

States can and should manage all forms of transportation infrastructure
Poole 1996
President of the Reason Foundation. An engineering graduate of MIT, he has advised the U.S. and California departments of transportation, the White House, and the President's Commission on Privatization. He is the author of numerous policy studies on such topics as airport privatization, air traffic control corporations, congestion pricing, and private tollroads. He was a member of the Caltrans Privatization Advisory Steering Committee in 1989-90 and the California Commission on Transportation Investment in 1995-96. (Robert, 1996, “DEFEDERALIZING TRANSPORTATION FUNDING,” http://reason.org/files/4883e8bd01480c4d96ce788feb1f2e05.pdf)

Airports, highways, and mass transit systems are primarily state and local responsibilities.
AND
and management decisions to state, city, and private decision-makers.

'The' PIC


Text: United States federal government should []

The Net Benefit is Geopower.
Use of ‘The’ before United States federal government inscribes nationalistic geopolitics, creating us-them dichotomies
Thrift 2k (Nigel | University of Warwick Vice Chancellor, University of Bristol Professor of Geography | “It’s the Little Things” | Geopolitical Traditions: A Century of Geopolitical Thought p.383-385)
Let us finally come to one more arena: the arena of words. After
AND
practices and their attendant territorializations within which geopower ferments and sometimes boils over.

And - Geopolitical borders breed racism - this must always be rejected
Dikeç 2__ (Mustafa | University of London Royal Holloway Geography Dept. Human Geography Lecturer | “Pera Peras Poros: Longing for Spaces of Hospitality” | Theory Culture Society)
California’s Proposition 187 was an attempt to build ‘safe homes’ for Californians, not
AND
is to keep them open. Hospitality is aimed at such a concern.




Topicality

T - Substantial = 50%

Substantial means more than 50%
Merrick B. Garland, 1997, Garland, Judge, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, "Grand Canyon Air Tour Coalition v. Federal Aviation Administration, No. 97-1003, US DC Circuit Court, FindLaw, caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=dc&navby=case&no=971003a
"Substantial" may well be defined as meaning "more than half." See Webster's Third New International Dictionary 2280 (1993) ("being that specified to a large degree or in the main") (4th meaning).

Current transportation spending is $556 billion, means plan must spend $278 billion
The Economist 11, 4/28/ (The Economist is an authoritative weekly newspaper focusing on international politics and business news and opinion. “Life in the slow lane.” http://www.economist.com/node/18620944)
Mr Obama is thinking big. His 2012 budget proposal contains $556 billion for
AND
commas around the word “investment” when Democrats apply it to infrastructure.

T - Icebreakers

A. interpretation
1. In means throughout
Words and Phrases, 8 (Words and Phrases Permanent Edition, “In,” Volume 20A, p. 205-215 March 2008, Thomson West)
Colo. 1887. In the act of 1861 providing that justices of the peace shall have jurisdiction “in” their respective counties to hear and determine all complaints, ect., the word “in” should be construed to mean throughout such counties.

2. Infrastructure is fixed, permanent equipment
GAO 98 – U.S. General Accounting Office (“Best Practices: Elements Critical to Successfully Reducing Unneeded RDT&E Infrastructure: Report to Congressional Requesters,” GAO Website, Jan. 1998, http://www.gao.gov/assets/160/156058.pdf)//RD
DoD generally defines infrastructure as “all fixed and permanent, installations, fabrications, or facilities for the support and control of military forces." It consists of mission supporting property, plant, equipment, and personnel, including contractor manpower, DoD excludes the equipment and personnel necessary to perform directly critical technical and acquisition functions, DoE defines infrastructure as "all real property and installed equipment and personal property that is not solely supporting a single program mission." NASA defines infrastructure as “the supporting a single program mission." NASA defines infrastructure as “the underlying foundation for NASA operations, including its people, facilities, equipment, business systems, institutional information systems, and technical infrastructure." Facilities are the land, buildings, structures, permanently located trailers, and other real property improvements, including utility systems and collateral equipment that essentially is integrated into the facility. Business systems are business processes and business tools. Institutional information systems include NASA computers, networks, and general purpose application software. Technical infrastructure includes mission/project/technology/science implementation tools and processes, such as equipment and instrumentation, processes and procedures, and software tools.



Strats

Greenhill

Meadows

Whitman

Rd. 2 Vs. Centennial (NIB)
T - 50%
DA - Elections
CP - States
K - Cap
Case

Rd. 3 Vs. Blackfoot (Critical Roads)
T - 50%
K - Global Local
K - Tech
DA - Fiscal Cliff
CP - 'The' PIC
Case

Rd. 6 Vs. Centennial (NIB)
T - 50%
DA - Elections
CP - States
K - Cap
Case

Silver & Black

Rd. 1 Vs. Worland (Icebreakers)
T - 50%
DA - Fiscal Cliff
CP - TIGER
K - Foucault
Case

2NC: Foucault/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: DA/Case

Rd. 4 Vs Rowland Hall (Icebreakers)
T- "in = throughout"
DA - Fiscal Cliff
CP - TIGER
K - Foucault
Case

2NC: Foucault/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: DA/Case


Rd. 5 Vs Sage Ridge (PPSP)
T - 50%
DA - Fiscal Cliff
CP - Tiger
K - Tech
Case

2NC: Tech/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: DA/Case


Gonzaga


Rd. 2 Vs Lowell (HSR)
T - 50%
DA - Immigration Reform
CP- Tiger
K - Tech
Case

2NR: Tech/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: Tech

Rd. 3 Vs St Vincent De Paul (TSA)
T - People and goods
K - Tech
Case

2NC: Tech/Case
1NR: T

2NR: Tech/Case


Rd. 6 Vs Leeland (NIB)
T - Capital Expenditure
DA - Immigration
Tiger
Cap
Case

2NC: Cap/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: DA/Case


ASU

Rd. 1 vs Loyola (Guam)

T- in=throughout
DA - Immigration
CP- Tiger
K - Tech
Case

2NC: Tech/Case
1NR: T/DA

2NR: Tech

Rd. 3 vs Los Alamos (Space Elevators)
T - Not Space
DA - Mil
K - Enclosure
CP - India Co-op
Case

2NC: CP/Case
1NR: DA

2NR: CP/DA

Golden Desert


Rd. 2 vs Nevada Union (Ruralism)

Framework
K - Cap
K - Coca-cola
Case

2NC: Cap/Case
1NR: Framework

2NR: Cap

Rd 4 vs CPS (Mayport)
CP - Tiger
DA - Immigration
K - Tech
Case

2NC: Tech/Case
1NR: Immigration

2NR: Tech

Rd. 6 vs Damien (Bering Strait)
T
K- Tech
Case

2NC: Tech
1NR: Case/T

2NR: Tech